Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics (Ch-2) Important Questions || Class 12 Home Science Chapter 2 in English ||

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Chapter – 2

Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 Home Science Chapter 2 (Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
SubjectHome Science
Chapter no.Chapter 2
Chapter Name(Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics)
CategoryClass 12 Home Science Important Questions in English
Class 12 Home Science Chapter 2 Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Questions in English

Chapter 2 Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics

Very short answer question

Q1. Give an example of Nutraceuticals and Phytochemicals.

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  • Nutraceuticals dairy products (e.g., milk, yogurt) and lemon, oranges, Green Tea
  • Phytochemicals/Bioactive compounds- beta-carotene, selenium, vitamin E and vitamin C

Q2. Mrs. Arora’s daughter, after obtaining the qualification of dietician, can work in which two institutions?


  • Dieticians with consultants / physicians in health clubs or gymnasiums
  • Dietitians in hospitals including specialty departments
  • Dietitians in catering services for hospitals, schools, industrial canteens, etc.

Q3. Which two new diseases have emerged in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries?

Answer – HIV / AIDS, Ebola, Swine Flu, S.A.R.S., Covid-19

Q4. Name any two chronic diseases related to lifestyle.

Answer – Obesity, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension

Q5. Give two reasons that increase the risk of high blood pressure.


  • Use of high salt foods
  • Use of processed foods with high sodium content
  • Low use of potassium-rich fruits, vegetables, grains, and pulses
  • Low calcium ingestion
  • Reduced physical activity and stress.

Short Answer Questions (2 marks)

Q1. What methods does a trained dietician or medical nutritionist employ for a professional medical nutritional care?

Answer – A trained clinical nutritionist / medical nutritionist plays an important role in the management of various diseases and in providing professional medical nutritional care.

  • They focus on the specific needs of each person / patient in a systematic and reasonable manner and only the patients are the primary focus of their nutritional care process.
  • They assess nutritional status and plan to diagnose nutritional problems.
  • They use dietetics for the overall improvement of patients’ health, by converting technical information into dietary guidelines.
  • Changes in the plan by evaluating the outcomes of nutritional care.
  • They provide advice to patients and, if necessary, help them maintain good nutritional status and stay healthy at various stages of the life cycle from womb to death (i.e., pregnancy, neonatal and childhood to old age).
  • For patients who have to undergo an operation, they prioritize nutritional intervention before and after surgery, and suggest dietary supplements. (Any other, any four)

Q2. What are medical foods? Explain by giving two examples.

Answer- Medical foods are products that

  • Designed specifically for the specific dietary management of a disease, those with prescription only can be used but are not considered as drugs.
  • These are usually in the form of liquid or powdered drinks mixes.

Some examples of medical foods

  • Special infant food
  • Products for life-saving solution (ORS-oral rehydration solution) or long-term diarrhea
  • Special nutritional products for patients with diabetes, AIDS, kidney disease or metabolic or congenital errors
  • Lactose free milk etc. (Any other, any two)

Q3. Write any two main reasons, because of which the number of diabetes patients in the country is continuously increasing and India can become the ‘Diabetes Capital’ of the world?

Answer – There are two main reasons for the continuous increase in the number of diabetic patients in the country.

  • Many substances which contain fat and/ or sugar are added in the foods that we are consuming today.
  • Intake of highly refined foods and less use of fibrous food.
  • Excessive deficiency of vitamins and minerals in the diet.
  • Increased use of animal protein in non-vegetarians.
  • Inappropriate lifestyle.
  • Lack of physical activity or exercise.

Q4. Describe any two problems arising from inadequate nutrition/ poor nutrition.

Answer- Insufficient nutrition / two problems due to poor nutrition.

  • Complications of health problems due to lack of immunity defense for the body.
  • Difficulty in wound healing.
  • Delay in treatment of the disease.
  • Difficulty in smooth functioning of various organs causing new health problems.

Short Answer Questions (3 marks)

Q1. Which is the best way to feed the patient? Explain the difference between feeding by the tube and intravenous feeding.

Answer. The best possible way/ route for feeding the patient is orally or by mouth.

Tube feeding

  • Nutritionally, the entire food is fed through the tube. If the gastrointestinal tract is functioning, then the person digests and absorbs everything.
  • This method is preferred over intravenous feeding.

Intravenous feeding

  • Nutrition is provided to the patient by special solutions, which are delivered by drip into the vein.
  • If the person is unconscious or there is a problem with his/ her stomach, or it is not possible for him to chew or swallow.

Q2. Pawan uses too much fat and sugar in his diet and does not take fibrous material at all. Educate him by showing the importance of good nutrition.

Answer. Proper nutrition/ good nutrition/ adequate nutrition is important –

  • to provide immunity.
  • Provide immunity and protection from infection.
  • For health benefits from various types of diseases.
  • To deal with incurable diseases.

Excessive consumption of sugar and fat along with low or no fiber consumption and lack of physical activity can cause Pawan to suffer from diabetes soon. It has been found in studies that eating more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low fat dairy products and lard meat or pulses reduces the risk of heart disease. Therefore, good, and adequate nutrition is very important.

Q3. Lata wants to adopt the career of a medical nutritionist and dietician after class twelve. In this context, you should guide her how she can prepare herself?

Answer. Preparation for Career as Medical Nutritionist or Dietician –

Essential Qualifications for Dieticiana.

  • After passing 10 + 2 level, B.Sc. Home Science or B.Sc. Degree in Nutrition Science.
  • Postgraduate Diploma in Dietetics with an internship in Dietetics, followed by a qualification as a Registered Dietitian (RD).

To choose a career in clinical nutrition and dietetics, Lata may pursuei.

  • Sc. in Home Science, Nutrition Science, Life Sciences, Biochemistry, Microbiology or Biotechnology. After taking the graduation degree in these field, she can further get admission in postgraduate diploma in dietetics. After completing university education, she can study further and get a certificate of eligibility for ‘Registered Dietitian’.
  • She can also do M.Sc. in Food Science and Nutrition or Dietetics to get more expertise in this field.

Q4. What do you understand by clinical nutrition? Explain the importance of clinical nutrition and dietary studies.


Clinical Nutrition:

The special area of nutrition that is related to the disease. This area is also called medical nutrition therapy. Clinical nutrition focuses on nutritional management of patients.


It is science, which explains how food and nutrition affect human health. It deals with feeding individuals based on the principles of nutrition. Importance of clinical nutrition and dieteticsi.

  • Clinical nutrition focuses on nutritional management of patients with certified disease.
  • In the circumstances of minor illness, acute and incurable disease, or chronic disease, it is important to ensure that the person is properly nourished, and for that the person who is providing services for this should be an expert and trained dietician/medical nutritionist/medical nutrition therapist.
  • New diseases such as HIV/AIDS have emerged and noninfectious diseases such as obesity, heart disease, extreme stress and diabetes are not only increasing in masses but are emerging at a young age.
  • Demographic changes have led to an increase in the number of elderly people. Thus, that segment of the population has grown, which need help in nutritional care and dietary advice.
  • New methods of nutritional assessment have been developed and are being adopted.
  • New technology, new methods and use of supplements and basic research related to nutrition, in addition to describing the role of various nutrients and other substances as a clinical nutritionist/ medical nutrition therapist can contribute significantly to disease management and promoting good health.

Long Answer Questions (4 marks)

Q1. What is a Modified diet? List three major ways by which diet can be modified.

Answer. Modified diets are those that are adjusted to meet the medical needs of a patient. For example, in kidney stones, allergic conditions include or remove certain foods, change in the number of meals, or modification in intervals of feeding and/or amount of food given or special plan for patients when route of feeding is altered. It can be one or more of the followinga.

  • Change in consistency and/or texture (e.g., fluid, and soft diets).
  • An increase or decrease in the energy (calorie) intake.
  • Include greater or lesser amounts of one or more nutrients.

1. Change in consistency and/or texture (e.g., fluid, and soft diets). Depending on the circumstances, patients may be advised to take liquid, soft or regular diet/ solid foods.

  • Liquid food-  Fluids generally remain at room temperature. Its advantage is that if the gastrointestinal region is functioning normally then the nutrients are absorbed properly. Eating this type of diet is recommended for those who cannot chew or swallow normally. Examples of these types of foods are coconut water, fruit juices, soups, milk, buttermilk, milk shake, etc. But their limitation is that it is not easy to meet the nutritional needs of the person completely.
  • Soft food- Provides soft but solid foods, which are cooked lightly. They do not contain high fibrous or gas-forming foods. These foods are easy to chew and digest. Examples of foods included in a soft diet are khichdi, oatmeal, etc. The risk of indigestion, flatulence, nausea, cramps, or any gastrointestinal problem is minimized by the foods given.
  • Mechanical soft diet- There are certain modifications we make even for normal adults in the older age group. This is called mechanical soft diet which includes soft, mashed, and pureed foods for the elderly with problems in chewing.
  • A soft diet, on the other hand, is a therapeutic modification. It is soft in consistency and includes only simple, easily digestible food with no harsh fibre, high fat or spicy foods.

2. Decrease or increase in energy (calorie) intake.

  • Increase in energy (calorie) intake. Examples: Diet given in case of fever
  • Reduction in energy (calorie) intake Examples: Diet given in the stage of besity

3. Incorporation of one or more nutrients in small or high amounts. For example, increase in protein intake in case of surgery, lower protein intake in case of kidney failure, high or low in fibre, lower fat intake, restriction in sodium intake, restriction in fluid intake. (Any other)

Q2. Rakesh has been newly appointed as a dietician in a health club. To take proper health and nutritional care of the customers who come there, review what his role will be.

Answer. Rakesh may consider the following factors for customers coming to the health club Some factors that Dietitian consider while modifying diets for patients:

  • The pattern of food, the frequency of receiving different types of food, the diagnosis of the disease and the prescription given by doctor.
  • Health conditions and physical condition including the ability to eat, chew, swallow digest and absorb the frequency of food intake of various types, feeling of appetite and the like and dislike of the person.
  • Feeling of hunger, physical activities and lifestyle, occupation, cultural, ethnic practices, socio-economic background, and religious belief.
  • Nutritional stress.
  • Psychological stress.
  • Dietary and other food items.

Role of a dietician for customers of the health club

  • Assessing the nutritional status of the customers of the health club.
  • Analyzing nutritional requirements, providing advice
  • Helping them maintain their good nutritional status and stay healthy.
  • To ensure that every customer gets proper diet and adequate nutrition as well as developing personalized nutritional care plan for each.

Long Answer Questions (5 marks)

Q1. Mr. Mehta wants to consult a clinical nutritionist to reduce his risk of high blood pressure. In this context, you should tell him about the followinga.

1. What is Diet therapy?

2. What are the objectives of Diet therapy?

3. To get information related to his nutritional status and other nutritional requirements,how a clinical nutritionist would do his nutritional assessment?


1. Diet Therapy— Diet therapy is a branch of dietetics concerned with the use of food for therapeutic purpose. It is concerned with nutritional requirements of patients suffering from different diseases and prescribing the right type of diet for them.

2. The objectives of Diet therapy—

  • Plan a diet keeping in mind the patient’s food habits.
  • Changes to the current diet to improve and keep the condition of the disease under control.
  • Correction of nutritional deficiencies.
  • Prevention of short-term and long-term complications in case of chronic diseases.
  • Education and counselling of the patient to follow the prescribed diet.

3. Nutrition Assessment— Assessment based on the following information on the nutritional status and nutritional needs of the patient- (in A B C D order).

Anthropometric measurements.

  • Height, weight and other physical measurements.

Biochemical Assessment

  • Relating the information on biochemical testing (blood, stool, etc.) and physical measurements with the above and the physician’s diagnosis.

Clinical Assessment

  • To get detailed information about the health, diet, personal and medical history of the patient.

Disease Identification

  • Interpreting all of the above to identify potential nutritional deficiencies and risk of future deficiencies.

Q2. Reshma has been working on the post of Chief Dietician in a reputed hospital in the city for three years. In this context, explain briefly about the following:

1. As a successful professional dietician, which two important skills would Reshma be having?

2. What necessary educational qualifications will she have?

3. How does Study of clinical nutrition and dietetics enable medical nutrition professional?


(A) As a successful professional dietician, Reshma will have the following two important skills –

  • Assessing nutritional status of patients using clinical and biochemical parameters.
  • Preparation of customized diet plan as per the requirement of individual patients and specific disease conditions.
  • Communication skills for dietary counseling.
  • Knowledge of cultural environment, food prohibition.
  • Skill in laboratory research and experimental design with patients to explore the utility of various diets, medicines, and nutritional supplements.

(B) Essential Qualifications for Dieticiani.

  • After passing 10+2 level, B.Sc. Home Science or B.Sc. Degree in Nutrition Science, Life Sciences, Biochemistry, Microbiology or Biotechnology
  • Sc. Post Graduate Diploma in Dietetics
  • Qualification certificate as a Registered Dietitian (RD), with internship

(C) Study of clinical nutrition and dietetics enables the professionals to:

  • Thoughtfully plan the diet for the nutritional needs of different levels of the life cycle,
  • Make changes in diet keeping in mind the physical condition, employment, ethnic and socio-economic background, treatment rules in various conditions of the disease and likes-dislikes of the patient,
  • Planning of food for the workers working in the industries, for the players and in specific circumstances like in space, for those working in submarines, for the people of defense services,
  • Promote the health and well-being of patients or outpatients admitted to hospitals as well as patients in institutional settings,
  • Managing dietary services in a variety of institutions such as elderly homes, schools, orphanages, etc.
  • Helping patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease to prevent complications and improve their quality of life,
  • Promote better capacity of holistic care services and contribute to better living and health benefits in the form of better patient care management in better health and health care institutions in the community.

Q3. A medical study found that women who ate plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and lard meat did live longer. Eating more fruits, vegetables and pulses reduces the risk of heart disease.

What would you conclude about the following?

1. Role of diet in causing disease

2. Role of diet in prevention of diseases


(A) Role of diet in causing disease

  • Health and nutrition are intimately connected. Poor nutrition not only causes health problems but can make current problems worse, while proper diet and good nutrition can delay the onset and control of diseases. Foods that contain high fat and / or sugar or are made from highly refined foods or have low levels of fibrous and other important ingredients that are beneficial for health, are helpful in causing diseases.
  • For example, low consumption of foods containing omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may increase the risk of heart diseases such as fatal arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms) by up to 52%.

(B) Role of diet in the prevention of diseases- Nutrition is necessary for the prevention and management of many disease conditions along with the protection and promotion of health. For example, phytochemical / bioactive compounds are non-nutrient constituents present in foods that have functional or biological activity in the body and influence health.For example, antioxidants like betacarotene, selenium, vitamin E and vitamin C, play a protective role in the body.

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