Peasants, Zamindars and the State (CH-8) Important Questions in English || Class 12 History Chapter 8 in English ||

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Chapter – 8

Peasants, Zamindars, and the State

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 History Chapter 8 (Peasants, Zamindars, and the State) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
Chapter no.Chapter 8
Chapter Name(Peasants, Zamindars, and the State)
CategoryClass 12 History Important Questions in English
Class 12 History Chapter 8 Peasants, Zamindars and the State Important Questions in English

1 Marks Questions

Q1: Who was responsible for supervising the fiscal system of the Mughal Empire.

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Ans: Diwan.

Q2: What was ‘Jama’?

Ans: The jama was the amount assessed.

Q3: What was hasil?

Ans: The amount collected in revenue system.

Q4: Which type of land was known as Polaj?

Ans: Polaj is land which is annually cultivated for each crop.

Q5. Mention various duties performed by state officials in the 16th century.

Ans. They collect land revenue, measure the lands and keep records, etc.

Q6. Who was the author of Ain-I Akbari?

Ans. Abul Fazl, writer of Ain-I Akbari, gems of Akbar’s court.

Q7. What was Jins-i-Kamil?

Ans. Cash Crop .Literally perfect crops. Example – cotton and sugarcane.

Q8. What were the functions of panchayat in Mughal period?

Ans. Community welfare – Construction of bandh or digging the canal.

Q9. Name any two sources that provides the information about the agriculture in Mughal Period.


  • Ain-i-Akbari
  • Accounts of foreign travellers.
  • Records of British India.

Q10. Who was Raiyat? How many types of Raiyat?

Ans. They were peasants. There are two types of Raiyat – Khud-Kashta and Pahi-Kashta.

Q11. Who were the Khud- kashta, and Pahi- Kashta?


  • They refers to two kinds of peasants –
  • Khud-Kashta – were residents of the Village in which they held their land.
  • Pahi-Kashta – were non-resident cultivators.

Q12. How many seasons of agriculture according to Ain?

Ans. According to Ain-i-Akbari, agriculture was organized around the two major seasonal cycles – The kharif and the Rabi.

3 Marks Questions

Q13. Why did the Mughal Emperor take interest in developing agriculture?

Ans. Because it was the main source of income of the empire. At that time land revenue was the most important income factor for the Mughal Empire.

Q14. Write the factors responsible for the expansion of agriculture during the 16th and 17th Century.


  • Excess of land.
  • Availability of labourers.
  • Irrigation facilities.

Q15. Is it correct to say the village as a little republic?


  • No, there was individual ownership of assets and deep inequities based on caste and gender.
  • Powerful groups, exploited the weaker sections.

Q16. What was the role of Village Panchayats and Headman? (Head Panch)


  • Panchayat was headed by a headman.
  • Panchayat derived its funds from contributions made by individuals.
  • Entertaining revenue officials who visited the village.
  • Community welfare.
  • Ensure the caste boundaries
  • To oversee the conduct of the member of the village community.
  • Authority to levy fines and give punishment.

Q17. Describe the role played by women in agricultural Production.


  • They worked with men in the field
  • Women sowed, weeded, and threshed the harvest.
  • Spinning yarn, making clay, pottery, and embroidery.

Q18. Give a brief account of the land revenue system of the Mughals.


  • Land Revenue was the main source of the income.
  • It consists two stages – i) Assessment ii) Actual collection.
  • Control over agricultural Production and fixation of the tax.
  • Revenue office – Amil Guzar.
  • Payment of tax – in cash or crop.
  • Land measurement and classification of Land.
  • Tax was fixed as per the quantity of land.

8 Marks Questions

Q19 Explain the role played by the Zamindars in Mughal India.


  • Zamindars did not directly participate in the process of agricultural production but they enjoyed high status in the society.
  • They hold their personal lands. They could sell the land.
  • They enjoyed many social and economic privileges.
  • They belonged to the upper caste.
  • They rendered certain services to the state.
  • They had right to collect revenue.
  • The Zamindars had kept control over the military resources.
  • Important role in developing the agricultural land.
  • Highest position in the society.

Q 20. Write in brief about the Mansabadari system Write its merits and demerits also.


  • Introduced during Akbar’s period.
  • All holders of government offices held rank (Mansabs) comprising of two numerical designations.
    • Zat (Position & Salary)
    • Sawar – Number of Horsemen he required.

Merits –

  • Qualification as based of rank.
  • Forceful army.
  • Good on revolts.
  • Ban on corruption.

Demerits –

  • Luxurious life.
  • Misuse of money
  • The loyalty of the soldiers.

Q21. Explain why does Ain-i-Akbari remain important event today?


  • Because it provides glimpses of Mughal Empire.
  • Valuable information about the political events of the time.
  • Information about country, people, products.
  • Information about various customs and practices, literacy, religious tradition.
  • Information about Mughal provinces.

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