Colonialism and the Countryside (CH-10) Important Questions in English || Class 12 History Chapter 10 in English ||

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Chapter – 10

Colonialism and the Countryside

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 History Chapter 10 (Colonialism and the Countryside) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
Chapter no.Chapter 10
Chapter Name(Colonialism and the Countryside)
CategoryClass 12 History Important Questions in English
Class 12 History Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside Important Questions in English

1 Marks Questions

Q1. Why did the Deccan riots commission form?

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Ans. The government of Bombay set up a commission of inquiry to investigate the causes of Deccan riots.

Q2. When did the limitation law passed by the British?

Ans. 1859

Q3. Who were Paharias?

Ans. Paharias were hill folk.

Q4. Who were Jotedars?

Ans. Jotedar were located in village and exercise direct control over a considerable section of poor villagers.

Q5. What was the British policy towards Pahariyas?

Ans. In 1770 the British embarked upon a brutal policy of extermination hunting Pahariyas down and killing them.

Q6. What were Paharias livelihood?

Ans. Subsisting on forest produce and practicing shifting cultivation.

Q7. Why did Zamidar default at payment?

Ans. The initial demand was very high. This was because it failed.

3 Marks Questions

Q8. Why were many Zamindaris auctioned after the Permanent Settlement?

Ans.  Agricultural products prices were very low. The East India Company had fixed high amount of revenue.

Q9. What steps were taken by East India Company to control the Zamindars?


  • The troops of Zamindars were disbanded
  • The courts were brought under the control of British collectors.

Q10. How did Jotdars resist Zamindars?


  • They prevented Zamindars from performing their duties;
  • They mobilized riots against Zamindars.

Q11. When and who introduced permanent settlement?

Ans. In 1793, Lord Cornwallis introduced permanent settlement.

Q.12 what were the demerits of ryotwori system?

Ans. The land revenue was very high. To pay land revenue was compulsory.

Q13 what was fifth report?

Ans. The fifth report was submitted to the British Parliament in 1813 about administrative activities of the East India Company.

Q14. Examine the policies adopted by the British towards Paharias during 18th century.


  • Firstly British adopted policy of extermination.
  • Augustus Cleveland, the collector of Bhagalpur proposed policy of pacification.
  • Under policy of pacification Paharia chiefs was to ensure proper conduct of their men.
  • Paharia went into mountains and deep forests and continued their war against outsiders.

Q15. What was Damin-i-Koh? Why did Santhals resist against Britishers during 18th century.

Ans. Damin-i-Koh was a large area given by British to Santhals. The colonial government had imposed heavy taxes on their land. The money lenders were charging high rates of interest and snatching their lands. The Zamindars asserted control over their land.

Q16. How did the Zamindars manage to retain control over their Zamindaris?


  • Benami sales enabled the estate to be sold at a low price back to the Zamindar.
  • New Zamindars were attacked by former Zamindars.
  • The ryots resisted the entry of outsiders.
  • Some Zamindaris were declared property of ladies.

Q17. Why Jotedar were more powerful than Zamindar?


  • The Jotedar had vast area of land.
  • He was a local moneylender.
  • He was local trader.
  • The Jotedar lived in the village.
  • He would not allow Zamindar to perform his duties.

Q18. How did American civil war affect the lives of ryots in India?


  • Traders of the Bombay persuaded farmer for growing more cotton.
  • Money lenders were ready for long term loans.
  • Cotton productive area doubled between 1860-1864.
  • The government started to collect more land revenue from peasants.
  • Only rich farmers gained profit.

Q19. What are the problems of using official sources in writing about the history of peasants?


  • The official sources reflect official concerns and interpretation of events.
  • The government was not ready to admit that discontent was because of government action.
  • Official reports must be verified with evidence gathered from newspapers, unofficial records, legal records and oral sources.

Q.20. What were the reason of the rise of Jotedar? Describe it.


  • By the early 19th century Jotedar had aquaired vast area of land some time as much as several thousand acres.
  • They controlled local trade as well as money lending exercising immense power over poorer cuiltivators of the region.
  • Jotedar were located in village and exercise direct control over a considerable section of poor villagers.
  • When the Estate of Zamindars were auctioned for failure to make revenue payment Jotedar were often amongst the purchasers.

Q21. Why did Zamidar default at payment? Discuss it.


  • The initial demand was very high this was because it was failed if the demand was fixed for all time to come the Company would never be able to claim a share of increased income from land when prices grows and cultivation expanded to minimize this anticipated loss , the company paid the revenue demand high.
  • This high demand was imposed in 1790s a time when the prices of agriculture produce were depressed making it difficult for Ryot to pay their dues to the zamindar.
  • The revenue was invariable regardless of harvest and had to be paid punctually.
  • Permanent settlement initially limited the power of Zamindar to collect the rent from the Ryot and managed its zamindari.

Q22. Why did deccan riots commission formed? Write their report.


  • Gonernment of Bombay set up a commission of enquiry to investigate causes of Deccan riots.
  • The commission produced a report that was presented to british parliament in 1878.
  • It held enquires in the district where the riots spread, recorded statement of riots and eyewitness.

Q23. Examine the impact of limitation law passed by British in 1859.

Ans. 1859 British passed a limitation law that stated that loan bond signed between money lender and Royt would have validity for three years which check the accumulation of interest over time. The moneylender however turned around a law for forcing the ryot to sign to new bond every three years; money lenders used variety of other means to short change the ryot; they refuse to give receipt when loan repaid, entered fictitious figures in bond, acquired the harvest at low prices and ultimately took over peasants property.

Q24. Who were Paharias? What were their livelihood?

Ans. Paharias were hill folk. they lived around the Rajmahal Hills, subsisting on forest produce and practicing shifting cultivation. They cleared patches of forest by cutting bushes and burning the undergrowth. On the patches, enriched by the potash from the ash, the Pahariyas grew a variety of pulses and millets for consumption.

Q.25. What was the British policy towards Pahariyas? Write any two points.

  • In 1770 the British embarked upon a brutal policy of extermination hunting Pahariyas down and killing them.
  • By the 1780s Augustus Cleveland the collector of Bhagalpur proposed a policy of pacification. Pahariya Chiefs were given an annual allowence and made responsible for proper conduct of their men. They were expected to maintain order in their locality.

8 Marks Questions

Q.26. In what ways was the livelihood of the Paharias different from that of Santhals?


  • The Paharias practiced shifting cultivation and lived on forest production. The Santhals practised settled-cultivation.
  • The agriculture of the paharias depended on hoe. Santhals practised with plough.
  • Besides agriculture the forest products too were means of livelihood of the Paharias. The Santhals gave up life of mobility and had started settled cultivation.
  • The Paharias were intimately related to the forest because of their occupations. The Santhals were settled in a specific region.
  • The Paharias regularly raided plains for food, power and tax. The Santhals had friendly relations with British, moneylender and traders.
  • The Paharias liked to gather forest produce for selling in the market but Santhals did not like it.

Q27. What explains the anger of the Deccan ryots against the moneylenders?


  • Ryotwari settlement of land revenue was direct revenue settlement of government with ryot.
  • The peasants were in need of money for many purposes.
  • Once they got entangled in the clutches of Sahukar, it became very difficult for them to get them self free from it.
  • Being unable to return back the loan to the moneylender, they had no choice but to give up all their possessions.
  • They took land on rent and animals on hire from Sahukar.
  • The Sahukars would not give receipts when loans were repaid.
  • Fictitious figures were entered in the bonds.
  • Peasants’ harvest was procured at low prices.
  • The government increased the land revenue from 50 to 100 percent.
  • After American civil war, moneylenders refused to extend advances.
  • The moneylender started renewing the bond every three years.

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