Chapter – 11
Rebels and the Raj
In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 History Chapter 11 (Rebels and the Raj) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.
|Board||CBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board|
|Chapter no.||Chapter 11|
|Chapter Name||(Rebels and the Raj)|
|Category||Class 12 History Important Questions in English|
1 Marks Questions
Q.1. What was the immediate cause for the mutiny of 1857?
Ans. In 1857, there was rumour that the soldiers were given new cartridges coated with the fat of cows and pigs.
Q.2. What was Subsidiary Alliance System?
Ans. It was a system devised by Lord Wellesley in 1798.
Q.3. Why is the Mutiny of 1857 called a struggle for independence?
Ans. People from all sections came together to fight against the British rule .
Q.4. What was the Doctrine of Lapse theory?
Ans. It was the policy of Dalhousie, the then Governer General. This Doctrine was based on the idea that in case a ruler of dependent state died childless, the right of ruling over the state lapsed to the sovereign.
Q.5. When and who annexed Awadh into British Empire?
Ans. Awadh was annexed into British Empire by Lord Dalhousie in 1856.
Q.6. What were the main reasons behind the failure of the mutiny of 1857?
- Lack of good and effective leadership.
- Superior strategy and military power of British.
Q.7 Who introduced subsidiary alliance? Name four powers which accepted it?
Ans. Lord Wellesley introduced subsidiary alliance. Hyderabad, Awadh, Mysore, Surat, Tanjor were early subsidiary states.
Q.8. Give two military causes for revolt of 1857?
- British officers showed sense of superiority.
- Greased cartridges.
Q.9. Why was the revolt in Awadh so extensive?
- The British dethroned Nawab Wazid Ali Shah.
- Zamindars, Talukadars and peasants did not like British.
Q.10. Mention two economic causes for revolt of 1857?
- Peasants were exploited by British and moneylenders.
- Craftsmen were jobless.
Q.11. What was doctrine of lapse?
Ans. The native states without natural successor were forcefully made part of British Empire.
Q.12. Which four centres of the revolt were more aggressive against British?
Ans. Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Jhansi, Gwalior.
3 Marks Questions
Q.13 Why did the mutinous sepoys in many places turn to erstwhile rulers to provide leadership to the revolt?
- Native rulers were natural leader of the people.
- They believed that Hindu Muslim unity is compulsory.
- They wanted to restore the pre-British world.
- Delhi was capital city in Mughal India and last Mughal emperor was there so rebels requested him for the leadership.
- Mostly, kings had experience of leadership and organization.
Q.14. What were the measures taken to ensure unity among the rebels?
- Both Hindus and Muslims requested Bahadur Shah for leadership.
- The proclamation issued during the revolt, appealed to all sections equally.
- The sentiments of both communities were respected and cared.
- The posters glorified the pre-British unity.
- Hindus and Muslims were equally member of the military commanding committee.
Q.15. What steps did the British took to quell the uprising?
- Marshall Law was clamped throughout the north India.
- All Englishmen were empowered to punish Indians.
- The common process of law and trial was brought to an end.
- British army assisted from many sides.
- Many native states assisted against rebels.
- Rebels were cruelly punished.
Q16. Discuss the extent to which religious beliefs shaped the revolt of 1857.
- Common Indian people did not like new education system without any discrimination.
- Study of Bible was compulsory in missionary schools.
- Christianity was common in Jails.
- A law was passed which enabled converted Christian to inherit his ancestral property.
- Under general service Enlistment act every new service undertook to serve anywhere in India.
- The government decided to replace the old guns by the new rifles.
- Abolition of sati and other social reforms.
Q17. Discuss the evidences that indicated planning and coordination on the part of rebels.
- Mostly cantonments soldiers were revolting.
- The rebels after revolting in Meeru set out for Delhi immediately. They wanted support of the Mughal emperor.
- The messengers were working for transmitting news from one place to another.
- Native officers’ panchayats were convened at night and collective decisions were taken.
- To send chapattis from one place to another place was common.
- New administration was established.
Q18 What were strengths and weaknesses of the revolt of 1857?
- Complete cooperation between Hindus and Muslims,
- Common people were also revolting,
- All rebels wanted freedom.
- The revolt failed to spread to all areas,
- All communities did not support,
- Many rulers were supporter of British,
- The rebel leaders were suspicious and jealous of each other,
- The rebel soldiers were not well equipped.
Q19. What was Subsidiary Alliance System?
- It was a system devised by Lord Wellesley in 1798.
- According to its terms, the British would be responsible for protecting their ally from external and internal threats to their power.
- In the territory of the ally, a British armed contingent would be stationed, whose expenditure would be borne by the ally.
Q.20. Why is the Mutiny of 1857 called a struggle for independence?
- People from all sections came together to fight against the British rule.
- Every thing and everybody connected with the white men was targeted by the people.
- The rebel proclamations in 1857 repeatedly appealed to all sections of the population irrespective of their caste and religion.
Q.21. Rumours and prophecies played an important part in moving people to action before the Revolt of 1857.Explain.
- There spread a rumour that the British had mixed bone dust of cows and pigs into the flour which was sold in the market.
- A prophecy was made that on the centenary of the Battle of Plassey on 23rd June 1857, the British rule would come to an end.
- The proclamations expressed the widespread fear that the British were bent on destroying the caste and religion of Hindus and Muslims and converting them to Christianity.
8 Marks Questions
Q.22. Why was the revolt particularly widespread in Awadh? What prompted the peasants, Taluqdars and Zamindars to join the revolt?
- All people of the Awadh did not like exploitative system of British.
- Wajid Ali Shah was a popular ruler and he had many sons but British dethroned him.
- All people of the Awadh wanted to restore rule of the Nawab.
- Begum Hazrat Mahal was leader of the rebels.
- Many great rebel leaders were also working in Awadh all people were dissatisfied.
- Taluqdars’ troops were disbanded and forts were destroyed. The Taluqdars of Awadh badly suffered by Summary Settlement of land revenue.
- Zamindars’ zamindaris were snatched by British. The zamindars did not like activities of the British.
- Peasants did not like 50% land revenue, to deposit land revenue was compulsory so farmers were selling their properties.
Q23. What did the rebels want? To what extent did the vision of different social groups differ?
- The rebels wanted to root out the British authority from India and restore pre-British world.
- Interests of all classes of Indian society were hurt. It led to general resentment against the British among them.
- The rulers and jagirdars wanted to reoccupy their respective kingdoms and jagirs.
- Indian merchants wanted concessions in trade. They did not like interference in their accounts and transactions.
- The peasants wanted liberal land revenue with liberal means of realization. They also wanted to abolish exploitation by Zamindars and Sahukars.
- The government servants wanted good respect, salary, power and dignity.
- Indian artisans and craftsmen wanted good vocational conditions.
- Pandits, Fakirs and other learned persons wanted to protect Indian culture and religion.
Q.24 What do visual representation tell us about the revolt of 1857? How do historians analyse these representations?
- The British artist presents the Britishers as heroes.
- As saviours the relief of Lucknow painted by Thomas Jones Barker is remarkable in this regard.
- Collin Campbell and Jones Outram captured Lucknow defeating the rebels. Recapturing of Lucknow has been described by the British as a symbol of survival, heroic resistance and ultimate triumph of British power.
- In Memoriam was famous painting of Joseph Noel. He expressed helplessness of English ladies and children.
- Miss Wheeler has been depicted as an example of defending heroic lady.
- The heroic image of Laxmibai inspired Indian for struggle.
- Cruel images of British were the symbol of revenge.
- Brutal images of Indian soldiers were the symbols of strangeness against British.
- Indian artist persuaded nationalism and patriotism in Indians.
Q25. Critically examine the annexation policy of Awadh by Lord Dalhousie.
Ans. Annexation of Awadh was accomplished in stages:
- The Subsidiary Alliance had been imposed on Awadh in 1801.
- British became increasingly more interested in acquiring the territory of Awadh.
- It was felt that the soil of Awadh was good for producing indigo and cotton, thus had commercial value.
- The takeover of Awadh in 1856 was expected to complete a territorial expansion started with Battle of Plassey.
- Finally on the accusation of misrule by the Nawab , Awadh was formally annexed to British Empire in 1856.
Q26. what were the causes for the discontent among the soldiers before the mutiny of 1857.
- Fear of new cartridges.
- Grievance about leave and promotions.
- Low salary compared to European soldiers at the same rank.
- Fear of loss of their religions.
- Anger against misbehaviour.
- Feeling of racial supremacy among the British.
- Nexus between soldiers and villagers, i.e., impact of new land revenue settlements.
Q27. What were the reasons behind the failure of the mutiny of 1857?
- Lack of good and effective leadership.
- The mutiny was not centralized.
- Lack of resourses.
- The revolt was poorly organized.
- The rebels had no common ideals.
- Lack of co-ordination.
- Some sections of people did not support the mutiny
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