Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context (Ch-9) Important Questions || Class 12 Geography Book 2 Chapter 9 in English ||

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Chapter – 9

Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 (Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
Chapter no.Chapter 9
Chapter Name(Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context)
CategoryClass 12 Geography Important Questions in English
Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Important Questions in English

Chapter – 9, (Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context)

Very Short Answer

Q1 What are the types of planning? Explain
Ans: Generally there are two types of planning, i.e. Sectoral Planning and Regional Planning.

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Sectoral Planning

  • Means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at the development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport and communication etc.

Regional Planning

  • The uneven pattern of development over space necessitates that the planners have a spatial perspective and draw the plants to reduce regional imbalance in development.

Q2 What do you know about Target Area Planning?
Ans: Target Area Planning-

  • The area which is remained economically backward, are targeted for special care.
  • Sometimes resources-rich regions also remain backward. In order to solve the regional imbalances and social disparities, the Planning Commission started a Targeted area.
  • This planning process is known as target area planning. Such as ‘Command area development programme’, ‘Drought prone area development programme’, ‘Desert development programme’, ‘Hill area development programme’ etc are examples which have been targeted separately for their economic development.

Q3 Mention in any three points about Hill Area Development Programme in India.
Ans: Hill area development programme

  • This programme was initiated during the fifth five-year plan covering 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttrakhand, Mikir Hills, North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu.
  • The districts above 600 metres in height and not covered under tribal sub-plan were treated as backward hill areas and were included in the hill area development programme.
  • Planned to harness the indigenous resources Horticulture and plantation etc in those districts. 

Q4 Explain any five points about the Droughtprone area programme.
Ans: Drought-prone area programme

  • This programme was initiated during the fourth five-year plan.
  • To create assets through employment for the people in drought-prone areas was its objective.
  • Irrigation, Land Development, afforestation, grassland development and rural infrastructure etc were emphasized.
  • The Restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants and human and animal population should be a basic consideration in the strategy.
  • There were 67 districts identified by the Planning Commission of India from the states as Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Telangana.
  • Irrigation Commission of India (1972) introduced criteria of 30% irrigated area and demarcated the drought-prone areas.

Q5 Briefly explain about ‘Integrated tribal development project in Bharmaur region’.
Ans: Case study- Integrated tribal development project in the Bharmaur region

  • Bharmaur tribal area situated between PirPanjal in the north and Dhauladhar in the South comprises Bharmaur and holi Tehsils of Chamba of Himachal Pradesh.
  • It is inhabited by Gaddi tribes who speak the Gaddi dialect and live in a very harsh climate.
  • They are economically largely dependent on agriculture and sheep and goat rearing.
  • The most significant contribution of the tribal sub-plan in the Bharmaur region is the development of infrastructure in terms of schools, Healthcare facilities, potable water, roads, communication and electricity.
  • At present literacy rate has increased, the sex ratio has improved and child marriage has declined.
  • Pastoralism is declining and transhumance practice has decreased.

Q6 What do you know about Sustainable Development? How did this term come to Light?

Sustainable Development

  • Development is a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the positive, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment.
  • In the post-World War II era, the concept of development was synonymous with economic growth which was measured in terms of GNP (Gross National Product), Per capita income and consumption.
  • But, even the countries having high economic growth, experienced a speedy rise in poverty because of their unequal distribution. So, in the 1970s, the phrases such as redistribution with growth and growth and equity were incorporated into the definition of development.
  • In the 1970s, it was realized that the concept of development cannot be restricted to
  • the economic sphere alone So it included the well-being and living standard of people, availing of health, education and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights.
  • The notion of sustainable development emerged in the wake of a general rise in the awareness of environmental issues in the late 1960s in Western World people.
  • The publication of ‘The Population Bomb’ by Ehrlich in 1968 and ‘The Limits to Growth’ by Meadows and others in 1972 further raised the level of fear among environmentalists in particular and people in general.
  • This sets the scene for the emergence of new models of development under the broad phrase ‘sustainable development.’
  • WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development) headed by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland gave its report (Brundtland report) Our Common Future in 1987.
  • The report defines Sustainable Development as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
  • Sustainable development takes care of ecological, social and economic aspects of development during the present times and pleads for the conservation of resources to enable future generations to use these resources.

Q7 What are various measures for the Promotion of Sustainable Development of the Indira Gandhi Canal?
Ans: Measures for Promotion of Sustainable Development-

  • The first requirement is the strict implementation of a water management policy. There should be protective irrigation in stage 1 and extensive irrigation and pasture development in stage 2.
  • People should be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
  • To reduce the conveyance loss of water, there should be a Warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in command areas of the outlet)
  • The areas affected by salinity and water logging should be reclaimed.
  • The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary.
  • Poor background people should be provided adequate financial and institutional support for the cultivation of land.
  • Agriculture and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of the economy.

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