Mineral and Energy Resources (Ch-7) Important Questions || Class 12 Geography Book 2 Chapter 7 in English ||

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Chapter – 7

Mineral and Energy Resources

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 (Mineral and Energy Resources) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
Chapter no.Chapter 7
Chapter Name(Mineral and Energy Resources)
CategoryClass 12 Geography Important Questions in English
Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources Important Questions in English

Chapter – 7, (Mineral and Energy Resources)

Very Short And Answer

Q1 “Most of the major mineral resources occur to the east of a line linking Mangaluru and Kanpur.” Examine the statement.

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Distribution of minerals in India

  • Most of the major mineral resources occur to the east of a line linking Mangaluru and Kanpur.
  • Minerals are generally concentrated in three broad belts in India.

North-Eastern Plateau Region

  • This belt covers Chhotanagpur (Jharkhand), Odisha Plateau, West Bengal, and parts of Chhattisgarh.
  • It has a variety of minerals viz. iron ore coal, manganese, bauxite, and mica.

The South-Western Plateau Region

  • This belt extends over Karnataka, Goa, and contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala.
  • This belt is rich in ferrous metals, bauxite, Manganese, and Limestone. It lacks coal deposits except for Neyvelilingnite.

The North-Western Region

  • This belt extends along Aravali in Rajasthan and part of Gujarat and minerals are associated with the Dharwar system of rocks.
  • Copper, Zinc, Sandstone, Granite, Marble, Gypsum Petroleum, etc. are found abundantly.

Q2. Explain the use and distribution of Manganese in India.
Ans: Manganese

  • Odisha is the leading producer of Manganese. Major mines are located in Bonai, Kendujhar, Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi and Bolangir.
  • Karnataka is another major producer and here the mines are located in Dharwar, Ballari, Belagavi, North Canara, Chikkmagaluru, Shivamogga, Chitradurg, and Tumakuru.
  • Nagpur, Bhandara, and Ratnagiri districts are important producers in Maharashtra.
  • The manganese belt of Madhya Pradesh extends in a belt in BalaghatChhindwara-Nimar-Mandla and Jhabua districts.
  • Telangana, Goa, and Jharkhand are other minor producers of manganese.

Q3. Explain the use and distribution of Bauxite in India.
Ans: Bauxite

  • Bauxite is the raw material of Aluminum. It is found mainly in peninsular and coastal tracts of the country.
  • Odisha is the largest producer of Bauxite. Kalahandi, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput are important producers.
  • Chhattisgarh has bauxite deposits in the Amarkantak plateau while the Katni Jabalpur area and Balaghat in M.P. have important deposits of bauxite.
  • Kolaba, Thane, Ratnagiri, Satara, Pune, and Kolhapur in Maharashtra are important producers.
  • Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Goa are minor producers of bauxite.

Q4 Explain the use and distribution of Copper in India.

Ans: Copper

  • Copper is an indispensable metal in the electrical industry for making wires, electric motors, transformers, and generators.
  • The Copper deposits mainly occur in the Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, Balaghat district in Madhya Pradesh, and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts in Rajasthan.
  • Also found in Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh, Chitradurga and Hasan districts in Karnataka.

Q5. Describe the distribution of Petroleum in India
Ans: Petroleum

  • Crude petroleum consists of hydrocarbons of liquid that are an essential source of energy for all automobiles, railways, aircraft, etc.
  • There are many bi-products are of it such as synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber, medicine, Vaseline, lubricants, wax, soap, and cosmetics.
  • Crude petroleum occurs in sedimentary rocks of the tertiary period.
  • Oil and Natural Gas Commission was set up in 1956.
  • In Assam, Digboi, Naharkatiya, Hugrijon, and Moran are important oil-producing areas.
  • In Gujarat, Kalol, Mehsana, Nawagam, Kosamba, and Lunej are important oil-producing areas.
  • Mumbai High lies 160 km off Mumbai, an offshore producing site.
  • Oil and Natural gas have been found in Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basins.
  • There are two types of oil refineries. Field-based – Digboi and Market based – Barauni.

Q6. Describe the distribution of Coal in India
Ans: Coal

  • Coal occurs in rock sequences mainly of two geological ages, namely Gondwana and tertiary deposits. Mainly used in thermal power generation and smelting of iron ore.
  • About 80 percent of the coal deposits in India are of a bituminous type and of noncoking grade.
  • Over 97 percent of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi, and Godavari.
  • Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, and Karanpura are important coal fields in Jharkhand. Jharia is the largest coal field followed by Raniganj.
  • The most important coal mining centers are Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh, Korba in Chhattisgarh, Talcher and Rampur in Odisha, Chanda- Wardha, Kamptee in Maharashtra, and Singareni in Telangana.
  • Tertiary coals occur in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, and Nagaland.
  •  Lignite occurs in coastal areas of Tamil Nadu.

Q7. Describe the distribution of Natural Gas in India
Ans: Natural Gas.

  • The Gas Authority of India Limited was set up in 1984 as a public sector undertaking to transport and market natural gas.
  • It is obtained along with oil in all the oilfields.
  • Exclusive reserves have been located along the eastern coast as well as (TamilNadu, Odisha, and Andhra Pradesh), Tripura, Rajasthan, and off-shore wells in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Q8. What do you know about non-conventional sources of energy?


“The Non-Conventional sources of energy in India will provide more sustained and environment friendly energy” Examine the statement.


“Non-Conventional sources of energy will provide more sustained, eco-friendly and cheaper energy if the initial cost is taken care of.” Examine the statement.

Ans: Non-Conventional Source of Energy

  • Sustainable energy resources are only renewable energy sources like solar, wind, hydro-geothermal, and biomass.
  • These energy sources are more equitably distributed and environment-friendly.
  • The non-conventional energy sources will provide more sustained eco-friendly cheaper energy after the initial cost is taken care of.

Q9. “Conservation of mineral resources is essential for the development of India”. Examine the statement.
Ans: Conservation of Minerals Resources

  • Improvising the technology so that low-grade ores can be used profitably.
  • By re-using, improving, and recycling methods, materials can be manufactured from minerals, and by replacing other materials as well.
  • People can conserve mineral resources by utilizing renewable resources. For example, using hydroelectricity, wind, wave, geothermal energy and solar power as sources of energy may conserve mineral resources such as coal.
  • The use of scrap is especially significant in metals like copper, lead, and zinc in which India’s reserves are meager.
  • Export of strategic and scarce minerals must be reduced so that the existing
  • Reserve may be used for a longer period.
  • Sustainable development calls for the protection of resources for future generations.

Q10. Explain any five points about Nuclear Energy resources.

  • Uranium and Thorium are important minerals for this energy. Uranium deposits occur in the Dharwar rocks.
  • Uranium was found along with the Singhbhum copper belt. In Rajasthan Udaipur, Alwar, and Jhunjhunu districts.
  • Uranium is also found in the Durg district of Chhatisgarh, the Bhandara district in Maharashtra.
  • Thorium is mainly obtained from monazite and ilmenite in the beach sands along the coast of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • The world’s richest monazite deposits occur in the Palakkad and Kollam districts of Kerala, near Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, and the Mahanadi river delta in Odisha.
  • Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1948.
  • The important nuclear power projects are Tarapur (Maharashtra), Rawatbhata near Kota (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), Kaiga (Karnataka), and Kakarapara (Gujarat).

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