Transport and Communication (Ch-10) Important Questions || Class 12 Geography Book 2 Chapter 10 in English ||

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Chapter – 10

Transport and Communication

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 (Transport and Communication) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
Chapter no.Chapter 10
Chapter Name(Transport and Communication)
CategoryClass 12 Geography Important Questions in English
Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Transport and Communication Important Questions in English

Chapter – 10, (Transport and Communication)

Very Short Question Answer

Q1. What are the disadvantages of road transport?
Ans: Disadvantages of Road Transport. Road transport is costly. It results in air pollution. Heavy goods cannot be taken to long distance. Road transport is more accident prone.

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Q2. What is the Golden Quadrilateral?


Explain the term ‘Gloden Quadrilateral’.
Ans: It is a super-highway project linking Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai. It has six super highways. It forms the shape of a Quadrilateral.

Q3. Name four national highways mentioning their terminals.

  • Sher Shah Suri Marg. National Highway No. 1. (Delhi to Amritsar)
  • National Highway No. 3. Between Agra and Mumbai.
  • National Highway No. 7. Between Varanasi and Kanniyakumari.
  • National Highway No. 2. Between Delhi and Kolkata.

Q4. Name two national waterways.

  • National Waterway No. 1. Pravagraj Haldia on Ganga river.
  • National Waterway No. 2. Sadiya to Dhubri or Brahmaputra.

Q5. Name the different types of railways in India on the basis of width. Where does India rank in world railways?
Ans: Rail Transport Indian railway system is the main artery of the country’s inland transport. It is the biggest in Asia and the fourth largest in the world. It has a route length of 63221 km on which 12,670 trains run every day connecting 7,500 stations. Indian railways comprise of three gauges: broad gauge (1.616 meters is the distance between both the lines); meter gauge (1.00 meter) and narrow gauge (0.762 and 0.610 meters). Its fleet of locomotives comprises of steam, diesel and electric engines.
Different parts of railways having different width have been constructed in India due to its diverse relief. Broad gauge railway lines are constructed in plains while narrow gauge railway lines are constructed in hilly region.

Broad gauge = 1.6 meters wide
Meter gauge = 1 meter wide
Narrow gauge = 0.76 meter wide.

Q6. Describe the two main types of air services in India.
Ans: The air services In India are of two types viz. international and domestic. Air India provides international air services for both passengers and cargo traffic to 35 destinations from four focal points—Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. Air India carried 3.83 million passengers in 2000-01.
Major international air routes are Delhi-Rome-Frankfurt, Mumbai-London, Delhi-Moscow, Kolkata-Tokyo, Kolkata-Perth, Mumbai- London-New York. Indian Airlines, Affiance Air (subsidiary of Indian Airlines), private scheduled airlines and air taxis provide domestic air services.
Indian Airlines operations also extend to the neighbouring countries of Southeast Asia and West Asia. At present, there are two private scheduled airlines operating on the domestic network; 38 companies hold non-scheduled air taxi operators permit. Private operators presently cater to nearly 52.8 per cent of the domestic air traffic. The share of private sector airways has increased rapidly after liberalisation.

Q7. What are the problems of having three railway gauges?
Ans: The railways in India are of three gauages— Broad gauge, meter gauge and narrow gauge. The meter gauge is being converted into broad gauge. This is called unigauge project. It avoids the transshipment of goods from one gauge to another. It will increase the capacity of transportation by trains and will he cheaper also.

Q8. Where does India rank in the world in context to roadways? Describe the major National Highways.


“India has one of the largest networks of roads in the world.” Support the statement with examples.
Ans: Roads. The road network in India is one of the largest in the world. The road length has increased from 397.62 thousand kilometers in 1950-51 to around 42 lakh kilometers. Of the total kilometer age, the length of the surfaced (metalled) roads increased from 156.11 thousand kilometers in 1950-51 to 833.0 thousands kilometers while the unsurfaced (unmetalled) road length during the same period increased from 241.5 thousand kilometers to 940 thousand kilometers. A number of important National Highways in India run in north-south and east- west
directions. They link one part with the other:

  • Sher Shah Suri Marg is historically very important. It connects Kolkata with Peshawar. It is now known as National Highway 1, which links Delhi and Amritsar,
  • National Highway 2 which links Delhi and Kolkata
  • National Highway 3 runs between Agra and Mumbai via Gwalior, Indore and Nasik.
  • National Highway 7 is the longest one which links Varanasi with Kanniyakumari via
  • Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Madurai. It traverses a distance of 2,325 km.
  • National Highways 5 and 17 run along the eastern and western coasts respectively.
  • National Highways 15 represents the border road in Rajasthan desert and run through Kandla, Jaisalmer, and Bikaner and joins the border road in Punjab.

Q9. Describe the national waterways of India.
Ans: The Inland Waterways Authority of India was set up in 1986 for the development, maintenance, and regulation of National Waterways in the country. At present, there are only three National Waterways in the country. Ten other waterways are being considered for up gradation as National Waterways.

The three national Waterways are:
National Waterway 1: The Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi Hooghly river system (1620 km);
National Waterway 2: The Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra river (891 km);
National Waterway 3: The West Coast Canal from Kottapuram to Kollam alongwith Udyogmandal and Champakar canals (205 km).

Q10. Write a note on Akashvani.
Ans: Akashvani: Radio is an effective means of mass communication in the country. Radio broadcasting started in India in 1927 with two private transmitters located at Mumbai and Kolkata. All India Radio (AIR) was constituted in 1936. It is also known as Akashvani. At the time of  independence there were six radio stations. At present, the All India Radio has 208 stations and 327 transmitting centers. These stations and transmitting centers provide services to 99 per cent of the population and 90 per cent of the area of the country. Private parties also have set up about 100 FM radio stations. All India Radio broadcasts a variety of programmers like information, education and entertainment.

Q11. Write a note on Doordarshan in India.

Ans: Doordarshan: Doordarshan, the national television of India, is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world. It has changed socio-cultural life of the people both in villages and in towns.
DD-1 operates through a network of 1,042 terrestrial transmitters that reaches to over 87 per cent of the population. For rtiral audiences, several programmers are regularly transmitted. Similarly, programmes on family welfare and healthcare are broadcasted every day. Music and drama are major components of the schedule of broadcasting. All India Radio commissioned the National Channel in 1998, which is essentially a night
service, airing evening to morning broadcast.

Q12. What do you mean by ‘Open Sky Policy5?
Ans: Air transport terminals are called airports. Air transport cost is comparatively very high, and therefore, it is mainly used for passenger services.
Only light and valuable cargo is dispatched by cargo aircraft. In order to help Indian exporters and make their export more competitive, the government of India introduced the ‘open sky policy 5’ for cargo. Under this policy any foreign airlines or association of exporters can bring freighters to the country for upliftment of cargo.

Q13. What do you know about Sher Shah Suri Marg ?
Ans: Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) road to strengthen and consolidate his empire from the Indus Valley to the Sonar Valley in Bengal. This road was renamed the Grand Trunk (GT) road during the British period, connecting Calcutta and Peshawar. At present, it extends from Amritsar to Kolkata. It is bifurcated into 2 segments:
i. National Highway (NH) – 1 from Delhi to Amritsar, and
ii. NH-2 from Delhi to Kolkata.

Q14. What is the importance of Konkan Railway?


Describe any three features of Konkan Railway.
Ans: Konkan Railway. One of the important achievements of Indian Railways has been the construction of Konkan Railway in 1998. It is 760 km long rail route connecting Roha in Maharashtra to Mangalore in Karnataka. It is considered an engineering marvel. It crosses 146 rivers, streams, nearly 2000 bridges and 91 tunnels. Asia’s largest tunnel which is nearly 6.5 km long, also lies on this route. The states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka are partners in this undertaking.

Q15. State any six characteristics of road transport in India.

  • India has one of the largest road network in the world.
  • The total length of roads in India is 42 lakh kms.
  • About 85% of passenger and 70 percent of freight traffic is carried by roads.
  • Roads continue to concentrate in and around urban centres.
  • Rural areas have the least km of roads.
  • 5846 km long Golden Quadrilateral network connects Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai.

Q16. Which is the most effective and advanced personal communication system in India ? Explain any four characteristics of it.
Ans: Internet is the most effective and advanced personal communication system in India. Characteristics.

  • It is widely used in urban areas.
  • It connects the user through E-mail with the world.
  • It is widely used for e-commerce and carrying out money transactions.
  • It is a store house of detailed data.

Q17. Explain with five suitable examples how the level of Economic development and nature of terrian affect the density of roads in India.


Why is the distribution of roads not uniform in India? Explain with l examples.
Ans: The distribution of roads is not uniform in the country. The level of economic development and nature of terrian are the main determinants of density of roads. Construction of roads is easy and cheaper in plain area. Quality of roads is better in plains, as compared to roads in high altitude areas. The density of road is 10.48 km in Jammu and Kashmir (including Ladakh) where as it is 387.24 km in Kerala (a plain area). The density of roads is high in northern states due to the high level of economic development.

Q18. What are National Highway? Explain any four uses of national ‘ highways in India ?


Describe any five characteristics of national Highway of India.
Ans: National Highway: The main roads which are constructed by the Central Government are known as the National Highways.

  •  These are meant for inter-state transport.
  • These help in movement of defence goods and material in strategic areas.
  • These connect the state capitals, major cities ports, railway junctions, etc.
  • These carry 40% of road traffic, while these are only 2% of the total road length.

Q19. The railway network in the north Indian Plain is dense. Why?
Ans: A dense network of railways is developed in the north Indian plains. About 50% of the total length of railways in India is found in northern India. The northern railways is the longest railway with a length of 10,977 kms. Many physical and economic factors are
responsible for it.

  • Northern plain is a level plain with low altitude. It is best suited for the construction of railways.
  • Due to dense population, big towns have developed which has led to high density of railway.
  • The intensive development of agriculture and industries has promoted the construction of railway lines.
  • It is essential to connect Mumbai and Kolkata with their hinterlands or northern plain.

Q20. Describe the growth and development of Border Roads in India.


Which apex body develop the border roads ? Explain the importance of border roads with examples.
Ans: Looking at the strategic importance of our border areas, the Border Roads Organisation was set up in 1960 and entrusted with the construction and maintenance of roads in the border states of the country. These border roads have helped in accelerating the economic development in these areas by increasing accessibility besides helping in strengthening of the defence preparedness. It includes the highest road of the world from Manali to Leh, at an altitude of 4220 meters above sea level. Along Indo-Chinese border, Hindustan Tibetan Road has been constructed. The board has constructed about 22800 km of Border roads and manages above 16400 km. of roads in border area.

Q21. ‘A well-knit and co-ordinated system of transport is necessary for sustained economic growth of the country’. Discuss.
Ans: Transport network is established to facilitate the movement of people and goods. It is the means of bringing human beings and the things they need and use together. It functions as a lifeline of the spatial economy at all territorial levels: A transport system involves origin, destination, route and the carrier.

  • Origin. Origin is the point where the traffic originates.
  • Destination. Destination is the point where it terminates.
  • Route. Route is the surface on which movement takes place.
  • Carrier. The carrier is the vehicle that moves the passenger or cargo. A well-knit and coordinated system of transport plays an important role in the sustained economic growth of the country.

Q22. How are Indian Railways contributing to the growth of national economy? Explain with examples.
Ans: Indian Railways:

  • Indian railways network is one of the longest in the world.
  • It facilitates the movement of both freight and passengers. The total freight carried by railways is 557.39 million tonnes. The total number of passengers carried by railways is 5112 million.
  • Metro rail has revolutionised the urban transport system in Kolkata and Delhi.
  • Railways developed around towns, raw material producing areas, hill stations have been developed for the exploitation of resources.
  • Railways could run to remain the main means of transport for the masses.

Q23. Distinguish between
(a) Personal communication and (b) Mass communication.


Classify means of communication on the basis of scale and quality into two categories. Explain any two characteristics of each category.

Personal Communication 

  • Personal communication are the means of delivering messages between individuals or small groups.
  • Messages are carried between the sender and the receiver both ways.
  • These means of communication include post card, letter, telegram, fax, telephone.

Mass Communication

  • These are the means of delivering messages from an individual or a group to a large audience.
  • Messages are delivered from a sender to a large audience usually one-way.
  • These means of communication include newspapers, magazines and other periodicals, electronic media like radio, television, films, etc

Q24. Distinguish between a National and a State highway.
National Highways 

  • These are the major roads of the whole country.
  • These connect the different capitals of state with major industrial and commercial towns of the country.
  • These are maintained by the Central Govt.
  • Total length of national highways in India is 71,000 kms.
  • These have commercial and strategic significance;
  • Sher Shah Suri Marg (G.T. Road) is a national highway.

State Highways

  • These are the major roads within a state.
  • These connect the state capitals with the major towns and district head- quarters within a state.
  • These are maintained by the State Govt.
  • The total length of state highways is 1,37,712 kms.
  • These have administrative significance.
  • Amritsar-Chandigarh is a state highway

Q25. What are border roads? Give two characteristics of border roads.
Ans: Border roads are strategically important roads along the Northern and North-eastern boundary of the country.

  • These are roads in high altitudes and mountainous areas.
  • These are constructed and maintained by BRO (Border Road Organisation)

Q26. Describe any three advantage of Satellite Communication in India.
Ans: Advantage of Satellite Communication Satellite communication is vital for the country due to economic and strategic reasons:

  • They are significant means of communication.
  • These can be used for the weather-forecast, monitoring of natural calamities and surveillance of border areas.
  • This is useful in the management of natural resources

Q27. ‘The distribution of roads in I India is not uniform’. Examine the statement giving three reasons.

  • The density of roads varies from only 10.48 km in Jammu and Kashmir (including Ladakh) to 387.24 km in Kerala.
  • Nature of topography is the main basis of road density.
  • Construction of roads is easy and cheaper on plains, while it is expensive on hilly terrain.

Q28. Describe any three advantages of pipelines as a means of transport in India.

  • Pipelines are used to transport liquids and gases.
  • It is environmental-friendly means of transport.
  • Pipelines can be laid through difficult terrain and also under water.

Q29. Define the term ‘communication.’ Describe the importance of telecommunication.
Ans: Communication is an activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages or information by speech, visual, writing or behavior.

Importance of Telecommunication:

  • Telecommunication is an important tool for business. This device is used to receive and send messages, access data etc.
  • This refers to the exchange of information with electronic and electrical means over a long distance.
  • Telecommunication also useful for students.
  • Telecommunication is helpful for people living in areas that do not have special care facility. With this they get in touch with a healthcare provider.
  • Telecommunication plays a vital role in transport sector.

Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Q1. Describe the distribution of railways in India.
Ans: Distribution of Railways. A close look at the railway map of India in any atlas would reveal the following pattern of the railway network:

(1) Northern plains. A dense network of railways has been developed in the Northern Indian Plain from Amritsar to Howrah with a few focal points like Delhi- Kanpur-Mughal-Sarai, Lucknow, Agra and Patna. A dense network of railways is developed in the north Indian plains. About 50% of the total length of railways in India is found in northern India. The northern railways are the longest railway with a length of 10,977 kms. Many physical and economic factors are responsible for it.

  • Northern plain is a level plain with low altitude. It is best suited for construction of railway.
  • Due to dense population, big towns have developed which have led to high density of railway.
  • The intensive development of agriculture and industries h as promoted the construction of railway lines.
  • It is essential to connect Mumbai and Kolkata with their hinterlands of northern plain.

(2) Peninsular plateau. The peninsular region, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu have a denser rail network as compared to other parts. The whole of the peninsular region has a hilly and plateau terrain. The concentration of population is moderate. Therefore, the rail network is also sparse. Trunk routes are aligned in such a way that there are efficient connections between Mumbai-Chennai, Chennai-Cochin, Chennai- Delhi and Chennai-Hyderabad.

(3) Coastal plains. There is a distinct contrast in the rail network between eastern coastal plains and western coastal plains. There exists a long trunk route all along the east coast. Such a rail track is the Konkan Railway of 837 km. long which has been built along the western coast from Mumbai to Cochin.

  • The outcrops of the Western Ghats being very close to the coast, restrict the extent of the coastal plain while the eastern coast is wider and the Ghats lie away from the coast.

(4) Areas with sparse Rail network. Himalayas, west Rajasthan, Brahmaputra valley, North East hilly region have sparse rail-network.

  • Himalayan Region. The mountainous terrain of the Himalayas is such a noteworthy region. The rugged terrain, hill and valley topography, backward economy and sparse population are the factors responsible for the sparse rail network in this region.
  • Western Rajasthan. In western Rajasthan a few metre gauge railway lines have penetrated the arid tract.
  • Brahmaputra valley. The Brahmaputra Valley has two parallel lines but no railway line has been constructed on the Meghalaya plateau.
  • N.E. Region. In Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland, no railways have been constructed. The main reasons for the absence of a railway network are the hilly terrain and forested tracts. The cost involved in providing railway tracks in these regions is too high. The sparse population is another important aspect which has not encouraged this investment.

Q2. Describe the major oil and gas pipelines of India.

1. Naharkatiya Barauni pipeline. Oil India Limited constructed the first pipeline of 1,152 km from Naharkatiya oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar via Noonmati (1962-68).

2. Haldia-Kanpur pipeline. To transport refined petroleum products. Barauni-Kanpur pipeline was laid down in 1966. Haldia-Maurigram-Rajbandh pipeline was constructed later.

3. Ankleshwar-Koyali pipeline. Extensive network of pipelines has been constructed in the Gujarat region. First pipeline connected the Ankleshwar oilfield to Koyali refinery (1965). Later, Kalol-Sabarmati crude pipeline, the Navagaon-Kalol-Koyali pipeline and the Mumbai
High-Koyali pipeline were laid.

4. Ahmedabad-Koyali pipeline. Ahmedabad has been linked with Koyali by pipeline for transport of petroleum products.

5. Ankleshwar-Vadodara pipeline. Gas pipelines have also been laid down between Khambhat and Dhuvaran, Ankleshwar and Uttaran, and Ankleshwar and Vadodara. Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) operates over 4,200 km of pipeline in the country and
supplies gas to power plants.

6. HBJ gas pipeline. Construction of a cross country 1,750 km long Hazira-BijapurJagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline has already been completed. This pipeline has now been extended from Bijapur to Dadri in Uttar Pradesh.

7. Kandla-Delhi pipeline. GAIL is also implementing a 1,246 km long LPG pipeline project from Kandla/Jamnagar in Gujarat to Luni in Uttar Pradesh via Delhi.

8. Mathura-Jalandhar pipeline. The Mathura refinery gets its crude from the Mumbai High through pipeline, which extends from Salaya on the Gulf of Kachchh to Mathura, Petroleum product supply pipeline exists between Mathura and Jalandhar via Delhi and Ambala, and between Mumbai and Pune for the transport of petroleum products.

Q3. Describe the main features of development of roads in India.
Ans: The history of roads construction in India is very old. Sher Shah Suri constructed Grand Trunk Road. After independence, a 10 year road development scheme known as the Nagpur Plan, was prepared. Four types of roads are found in India:

  • National Highways (79,243 km)
  • State Highways (1,31,899 km)
  • District Roads (4,67,763 km)
  • Village Roads (26,50,000 km)

Main features of Roads in India:

  • India has 13,94,000 kms of metalled roads.
  • India has 8,73,500 kms of unmetalled roads.
  • India has just 41 km. road length for every 100 sq. km. area. It has a road length of 251 km for every 1 lakh people.
  • India has 79,243 kms of National highways.
  • About 26 lakh automobiles move on roads of India.
  • Annual income from roads is about 1500 crore rupees.
  • Indian roads carry about 30% of total freight of the country.
  • The important National highways are:
    • Sher Shah Suri Marg (G.T. Road) Kolkata to Jammu.
    • Delhi-Mumbai Road
    • Kolkata-Mumbai Road
    • Mumbai-Chennai Road
    • Great Deccan Road (Varanasi to Kanyakumari)
    • Kolkata-Chennai Road.
    • Pathankot-Srinagar Road.
    • The Border Road Development Board was established in 1960.

It has got constructed about 38,028 km. long metalled roads in border areas. It has constructed the world’s highest road from Manali (H.P.) to Leh (Ladakh). The average height of this road is 4,270 metres.

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