Recent Developments in Indian Politics (CH-9) Important Questions in English || Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 in English ||

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Chapter – 9

Recent Developments in Indian Politics

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 (Recent Developments in Indian Politics) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
Chapter no.Chapter 9
Chapter Name(Recent Developments in Indian Politics)
CategoryClass 12 Political Science Important Questions in English
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics Important Questions in English

Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

One Marker Questions

Q1. Fill in the b1anks:-

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The founder of Bahujan Samaj party was­­­­­­______.

Ans. Kanshi Ram

Q2. In which year Congress Party non 415 seats in Lok Sabha elections?

  • 1980
  • 1984
  • 1989
  • 2004

Ans. b) 1984

Q3. Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by the Sri Lankan Tamil linked to the LITE in which year?

  • 1989
  • 1990
  • 1991
  • 1992

Ans. c) 1991

Q4. Who was the prime minister when Mandal Commission’s recommendations were implemented?

  • K.Gujral
  • Devegowda
  • Manmohan Singh
  • V P Singh

Ans. d) VP Singh

Q5. In which year India adopted New Economic Policy?

  • 1990
  • 1991
  • 1992
  • 1993

Ans. b) 1991

Q6. In India, the Era of Coalition Government started in which year?

  • 1984
  • 1989
  • 1991
  • 2000

Ans. b) 1989

Q7. Write full form of OBC.

Ans. Other Backward Class

Two Marker Questions

Q1. What does a coalition government mean?

Ans. A Coalition government means that some polltical parties contest elections together by compromise or after concluding the results of the elections together by compromise, they form a government.

Q2. Which Was the main constituent party in the National Front? What was the main electoral issue of this alliance?

Ans. The Janata Dal was a major constituent party of the National Front government and contested elections on the issue of corruption and the issue of Bofors.

Q3. What led to the era of coalition governments at the center?


  • Weakening of National Partics example: Congress,
  • Rise of regional parties

Q4. What was Shah Bano Case?

Ans. Shah Bano’s claim was premised under Section 123 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, which stipulates that a man will have to provide for his wife during the marriage and after divorce if she cannot sustain herself financially on her own.

Q5. Write expansion of BAMCEF and establishment year.

Ans. Backward and Minority Classes Employees Federation, established in 1978.

Four Marker Questions

Q1. Explain any four issues related to the development of social welfare and participation of the people in Indian Politics.

Ans. Four issues related to the development of social welfare and participation of the people in Indian Poltitcs:-

  • Right to Information.
  • Pradhanmantri Ujjwala Yojana
  • Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
  • Jan Dhan Yojona
  • Deendayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana
  • Kisan Fasal Bima Yojana
  • Beti Padhao, Desh Bachao
  • Aayushman Bharat Yojana etc.

Q2. Describe the emergence of BJP as a significant force in the Indian politics.


In 1980, Jana Sangh formed Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP). Bharatiya Janata Party adopted ’Gandhian Socialism’ as their ideology .It did not get much success in the elections held in 1980 and 1984. In 1986, BJP criticised the Congress government on unnecessary appeasement of the minority community. BJP also made Ram Mandir as its major electoral issue. BJP emerged a significant force after 1989.The BJP continued to consolidate its position in the elections of 1991 and 1996. It emerged as the largest party in the 1996 elections. It came to power by leading a coalition government (NDA) from May 1998 to June 1999 and was re-elected in October 1999 and completed its full term in the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. BJP got an absolute majority in the Lok Sabha elections held in May 2014 in the leadership of Narendra Modi. Again, In the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, BJP has emerged as the largest party at the centre by winning 303 seats in the leadership of Narendra Modi.

Q3. What was the Mandal Commission?State two recommendations of this Commission.

Ans. In 1978 the central government appointed a Commission. The chairperson of this Commission was Bindeswari Prasad Mandal, therefore it is also known as Mandal Commission. The Mandal Commission was set up to investigate the extent of educational and social backwardness among various sections of Indian society and recommend ways of identifying these backward classes. It was also expected to give its recommendations on the ways in which this backwardness could be ended.

Two Recommendations:-

  • Recommended reservation of 27% seats in educational institutions and government jobs
  • Recommended Land Reforms to improve the conditions of backward class.

Q4. State any four effects of the 1989 Lok Sabha elections on the politics of India.


  • Elections in 1989 led to the defeat of the Congress Party but did not result in a majority for any other party.
  • The beginning of the coalition politics in the Indian political system.
  • Political rise of other backward classes .
  • Regional parties played an important role in the formation of government.

 Five Marker Questions

Q1. Study the cartoon given below and answer the questions that follow:

 1) This cartoon is an example of which type of government?

Ans. Government that has not obtained an absolute majority, supported by other parties.

2) Why was the government formed by the National front in 1989 called a puppet government?

Ans. It was called a puppet government because the government was supported by other parties.

3) Identify the persons pulling the strings and the political parties they belong to.

Ans. Name of the leader: Shri Jyoti Basu Name of the party: CPI(M) Name of the leader: Shri L. K. Advani, Name of the party: Bharatiya Janata Party.

Six Marker Questions

Q1. In the 2014 elections and 2019 elections, people have voted for a stable government at the centre. Do you think that the era of coalition has ended? Justify your answer with suitable arguments.


  • During 2014 elections and 2019 elections BJP won majority in Lok Sabha under the leadership of Shri Narendra Modi. People have voted for a stable government at centre. BJP won 303 seats in the Lok Sabha, the biggest number any single party has won in the lower house since 1984 when Congress swept the elections in aftermath of Mrs. Indira Gandhi.
  • A coalition government was formed in 2014, while the BJP had an absolute majority, the outgoing government took the support of all regional parties and put forward the goal of”Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas’. Similarly, even after achieving absolute majority in 2019, the coalition government formed and it is called NDA IV government. Now,the goal of the government is ”Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas Sabka Vishwas Sabha Prayas’
  • It is also called a ‘surplus majority coalition’. In that sense a major transformation could be seen in the nature of coalition politics which could be seen from one party led coalition to one party dominated coalition.

Q2. What are the merits and demerits of coalition government.Explain any three.

Ans. Some merits and demerits of coalition government:-

Merits of Coalition government :-

  • Representation of regional and local parties in the Lok Sabha.
  • Government policies can be more flexible
  • Better reflects public opinion
  • Consensus-based politics rules out the possibilities of majority.

Demerits of Coalition government:-

  • Unstable governments
  • Emergence of culture of defections
  • Conflicts between centre and state
  • An arrangement to remain in power
  • Government cannot make bold decisions because of a lack of majority.

Q3. Describe any three elements of consensus that have emerged among most political parties in India.

Ans.  The consensus emerged among most political parties in India in spite of severe competition and conflicts

Agreement on new economic policies:-

  • Most political parties are in support of the new economic policies. They believe these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.

Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes:-

  • All political parties now support reservation of seats for the backward classes in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCsget adequate share of power.

Acceptance of the role of state level parties in Governance of the country:-

  • Distinction between the state level and national level parties is fast becoming less important. State level parties are sharing power at the national level and have played a central role in the country’s politics of the last twenty years.

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