Children and Women in Sports (CH-5) Important Questions in English || Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 in English ||

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Chapter – 5

Children and Women in Sports

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 (Children and Women in Sports) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
SubjectPhysical Education
Chapter no.Chapter 5
Chapter Name(Children and Women in Sports)
CategoryClass 12 Physical Education Important Questions in English
Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 5 Children and Women in Sports Important Questions in English

Short Answer Type Questions (2 Mark each)

Q.1 Elucidate the meaning of motor development.

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Ans. Motor development refers to the development of a child’s bones, muscles, and ability to move around and manipulate his/her environment. In simple words, motor development means the development of movement var ous motor abilities from birth till death. In other words, motor development is the progressive change in movement throughout the life cycle. As a matter of fact, the ability to move Is essential for human development Various motor movements or motor skills are essential for everyday life activities such as sitting, walking, running, climbing, catching or holding, jumping skipping or throwing, etc. Motor development can be divided into two types

I.e. Gross Motor Development and Fine Motor Development.

Q.2 Explain briefly the motor development in middle childhood.

Ans. Middle childhood: The period of middle childhood starts in the 7th year and continues up till the 10th year. During this period the changes, which takes place are-

  • Children become more energetic.
  • Strong desire to engage in various physical movements and activities.
  • Good eye-hand- eg coordination.
  • Better in balance and postures.
  • Motor skills are perfected and stabilized.
  • Coordinative abilities develop at the high level, while flexibility develops at the slow level.

Q.3 Write the benefits of exercise during old age.

Ans. Benefits of exercise during old age

  • Inlow the chances of heart-related diseases.
  • Increases ability to work in daily life without fatigue.
  • Slows down the aging process.
  • The mode remains good, which reduces the change of depression.
  • Physcialcapacityincreases.
  • Bones and muscles remain strengthened.
  • Reduces the chance of many lifestyle-related diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc.

Q4. What are the causes and risk factors of osteoporosis?

Ans. Osteoporosis Is a sketal disorder that refers to the decreased bone material contens. There are various factors, which lead to osteoporosis, these are :

  • Insufficient calcium In diet:- The main cause of osteoporosis intake of insufficient calciumindi
  • Amenorrhea:- Women suffering from Menstrualdysfunction or Amenorrhoea for more than 6 months are likely to face osteoporosis because the secretion of the hormone called OestrogenIs decreased In those women. This hormone is necessary for the absorption of calcium In our body.
  • Eating disorder:- Eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia etc. may also cause osteoporosis because there can be less amount of calcium intake.
  • Bad Eating Habits:- Intake of Caffeine, Alchohol, and tobacco smoking may lead to osteoporosis. These products have a negative effect on Bone Density.

Short Answer Type Questions (3 Mark each)

Q.1 Mentiontypes of motor development in new child.

  • Gross motor development: involves the development of large muscles In the child’s body such as sitting, walking, running, dimming, etc.
  • Fine motor development: It involves the small uses of the body, especially in the small movement of the fingers and hands. For example, holding javelin, discus, pole, catching a cricket ball, smashing a volleyball, and gymnastic exercises with or without apparatus, etc.

Q.2 Describe the exercles for Adolescnce.

Ans. Adolescence (13 to 19 years):

  • During adolescence, moderate to vigorous intensity exercises or physical activities should be performed for at least 60 minutes or a little more daily.
  • Adolescents shOuld also indulge in muscle strengthening exercises at least three days per week.
  • They should also perform bone strengthening exercises.
  • Adolescents or teenagers should avoid a sedentary style.
  • Physical activities or exercises such as running. gymnastics, push-ups, jumping rope, playing hockey, basketball, swimming, tennis, and resistance exercises (weight training) are also very beneficial during adolescence.

Q.3 Explain the symptoms & corrective measures of kyphosis.


Symptoms: Distance between the scapula Increase.

  • The length of the chest muscles becomes short.
  • Shoulders tilt forward.
  • Neck tilt forward
  • Upper Body wt. lean forward.

Corrective Measures:- In order to cure kyphosis such types of exercises are suggested, which Increase the length of the pectorals and provide strength to the thoracic region uses.
such as :

  • Backstroke swimming
  • Chakrasana
  • Bhujangasana
  • Dhanurasana
  • Reverse bending on the swiss ball
  • Reverse butterfly
  • Pillow back extension
  • Marjaryasana (cat pose)
  • Adhomukha shananasana (Down word dog pose)
  • Ustrasana (Camel pose)
  • Haf wheel pose (Ardha chakaarasana)

Q.4 Mention the symptoms causes & corrective measures of knock knee.

Symptoms :

  • Knees touch each other in a standing position.
  • Knees touch each other In walking.
  • Knees touch each other in running.


  • Obesity
  • Deficiency of vitamin D
  • Rickets
  • Early age walk or standing
  • Malnutrition
  • Enlargement of the medial ligament of both knees quickly as compared to a lateral ligament.
  • Lifting heavy loads for a long time.

Corrective measures:-

  • Horseriding
  • Padmasana
  • Standing with a pillow between the knee
  • Use walkingcalliper
  • Straight leg lift
  • Straight leg knee press on the towel placed under the knee
  • Side kicking the football

Q.5 Discuss the symptoms, causes & corrective measures of flat feet.



  • PainInmid part of feet during standing & walking.
  • Disappear ng the long arch of the feet
  • Complete feet print can be seen on the floor.


  • Weakness of muscles & bones
  • Carrying a heavy load for a long time
  • Injuries
  • Malnutrition
  • Faulty shoes

Corrective Measures:

  • Writing with legs
  • Walking or running on the sand
  • Jumping on toe
  • Wearing proper shoes
  • Pick the pebble with help of feet
  • Walking on toe
  • Tadasana
  • Vajra-asana
  • Ball under the feet game
  • Wear the shoe with a hankey inside the mid part of the feet

Q6 Express the reasons for women to have less participation in sports.


  • Lack of legislation
  • Lack of time
  • Lack of self-confidence
  • The male-dominated culture of sports
  • Lack of Interest of spectators
  • No media coverage of women’s sports
  • Lack of female sports personas role models
  • Lack of fitness & wellness movement.
  • Lack of education among women.
  • Attitudes of society towards women’s sports participation. 
  • Lack of personal safety.
  • Lack of proper scientific equipment & facilities.
  • Sports & games are considered masculine.
  • Depression & Aggressionleve
  • Competitiveness.

Q7. Elaborate on the various types of disorders/problems related to menstrual dysfunction.


  • Absence of menstrual periods:- This problem may be due to an eating disorder,excessive exercise schedule, extreme levels of stress and medications, etc.
  • Premenstrual syndrome:- Many girls may have symptoms such as acne, backaches, Sore breasts, headaches, constipation, depression, irritability and feeling anxious, etc. These symptoms may be faced by females before their menstruation.
  • AbnormalCramps:- These cramps are caused by a chemical in the body that makes the muscles in the uterus contract.
  • Heavy or prolonged period:- It is common for a girl’s menstrual period to be heavier on some days than others.
  • Irregular menstrual period:- The regular menstrual cycle for a female is 28 days. However, it may very from 21 to 35
  • Delay in the first menstrual period.

Q8. What do you mean by female triad? Explain the causes of it.

Ans. Female triad means a syndrome in which osteoporosis, amenorrhoea, and eating disorders are present in the female. The triad is a serious disorder or illness with lifelong health consequences and can be very fatal. In fact, it Is a syndrome of three interrelated conditions.

Osteoporosis: It Is a Skelton disorder that refers to decreased bone material contents.

  • Insufficient calcium in the diet,
  • Eating disorder,
  • Amenorrhoea,
  • Bed eating habits,

Amenorrhoea:- It Is a menstrual disorder or Illness in females of 18 years or above who either never began menstruating or there is an absence of menstruation for three months and more.

The factors or causes which may inspire or enhance the chances of amenorrhoea,

  • Hormone changes
  • Intensive excises
  • Intake of less carbohydrates or calories.

Eating disorders: When people began to eat more than normal or very small amounts it is known as eating disorders.

There are two types of eating disorders:

  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Bulimia Nervosa

Short Answer Type Questions (5 Mark each)

Q.1 Explain any five factors of affective motor Development In children.

Ans. The following are the most important factor which affects motor development in children.

  • 1. Heredity: Children get genes’ for all the developments from their parents. It has been seen motor development of a child follows the same pattern as that of their parents. These factors are related to body weight, size, and strength.
  • 2. Environmental Factors: Environmental factors such as physical and social factors are likely to affect motor development. Encouragement, love, and security help the child to take risks to explore fearlessly which leads to better motor development. Those children, who are not encouraged or motivated toward motor activities have a slow rate of motor development.
  • 3. Nutrition: Nutritive food promotes good motor development. If they get nutritive food, they get stronger & their development is good. If they don’t get the proper nutrition they are found to be less energetic & their motor development takes place slowly.
  • 4. Physical Activities: For those children, who do not perform or practice physical activities regularly their motor development becomes slow. However, physical activities must be according to the capabilities of children.
  • 5. Opportunities: For children who get more opportunities to perform more activities, motor development is better in them. Opportunities to play give a better chance of developing sensory-motor activities. If proper opportunities are not given to children their motor development cannot take place in Those children properly.
  • 6. Disability and Disease: Disability and disease affect motor development. It reduces perfection in motor skills whereas a healthy person gains faster motor development.
  • 7. Body Weight: Overweight and obese children have less motor development whereas healthy child has more skill perfection.
  • 8. Mental Ability: Motor development depends upon mental level, thus small children have less perfection.
  • 9. Regular Practice: With regular practice, motor development and perfection are gained.
  • 10. immunization: If mother and child both are immunized at a proper time it leads to good sensory motor development.

Q2. Describe the symptoms, causes & corrective measuring of scoliosis.

  • Scoliosis: Posturaladaptat on of the spine inlateral directionis called scoliosis. In fact. these are sideways curves and may be called scoliotic curves. Indeed these curves are identified as either convexity right or right convexity. A simple or single curve to the left or curve. Scoliosis curves may be found in an ‘S’ shape.
  • Causes of Scoliosis: Scoliosis may be due to many reasons but the main reasons are diseases In the joints of bones, under-developed legs, infantile paralysis, rickets, carrying heavy loads on one shoulder, unhealthy conditions, inadequate lighting arrangement, uncomfortable desks, partial deafness, and wrong standing posture. It may be caused by congenital or acquired abnormalities of vertebrae, muscles, or nerves.


  • A balanced diet should be taken
  • Studying should be avoided In a sideways bending position.
  • Avoid walking for a long time while carrying weight In one hand.


Scoliosis can be remedied by doing the following exercise:

  • Bending exercises should be done on the opposite side of the ‘C-shaped curve.
  • Hold the horizontal bar with your hands and lift your body or hang for some time.
  • Hold the horizontal bar with your hands and swing your body to the left and right sides.
  • Swim by using the breaststroke technique.

Q3. Discuss the symptoms, causes & corrective measures of bow legs.
Ans. Bow legs: There is a wide Gap between the knees.


Symptoms :

  • Gaps between the knees are increased
  • The knee moves in an outward direction in standing, walking & running.
  • The shape of the legs looks like a bow.

Causes :

  • Inlargement of the lateral ligament of both knees quickly as compared to medial ligament.
  • Weakness of bones and muscles.
  • Long time cross leg sitting.
  • Faulty style of Walking.
  • Obesity
  • Rickets
  • Early age standing and walking.

Corrective measures :

  • Walking (feet twisted Inward)
  • Useofwalkingcallipers.
  • Massage therapy.
  • Use those exercises that strengthen the muscles surrounding the knee such as leg extension in the laying position.
  • Use a yoga strap to bind the legs together then make cow face posture & forward bending are recommended.
  • Pilate exercises such asrollup& ballerina arms are effective to tone legs.
  • GarudAsana, Ardh-Matsyendrasana

Q4. Elucidate the steps to improve participation of women in sports & games

Ans. The steps to improve women’s participation in the field of sports and games:

  • Motivationandinspirationto women’s participation.
  • Support from family and parents.
  • Organize camps, seminars, and workshops.
  • To provide knowledge and media coverage.
  • Educating women at the grass root level for participation.
  • Provide better infrastructure and facilities.
  • Ensuring the safety and security of women.
  • More opportunity for competition.
  • Develop new techniques and environments.
  • To build physical and psychological strength.
  • Healthy and balanced food.
  • Better incentives and award
  • Change in attitude and perception village level
  • Equality and community mobilizing.
  • Development of self Confidence.
  • Financial help
  • Employment and career
  • Designing and Implementing government policies

Q.5 What do mean by Anorexia Nervosa what are its causes, symptoms, and preventions?

Ans. Anorexia Nervosa: This is a psycho-physical condition. ItIs characterized by lack of appetite and an associated with the subconscious desire to remain slim. Such a feeling usually develops in young women or adolescent females In order to retain their body figure andImage.As a result of this, there Is a refusal to maintain normal body weight from their fear of becoming obese and spoiling their figure.

Anorexia is an eating disorder that is affecting youth nowadays. It is a dangerous disorder for our health and well-being. Anorexia can lead to many problems such as bone loss, loss of skin integrity and many even cause menstruation to stop. II puts great stress on the heart and lnterreges the risk of heart attacks and other heart-related problems. Individuals suffer ng from anorexia also face an increased risk of death.

Causes of Anorexia: Anorexia is an eating disorder that is caused by a combination of several psychological social and biological factors. Several other factors such as family environment, personality traits, and low self-esteem may also
lead to anorexia. The factors causing anorexia are as follows:

  • Psychological factors: Individuals suffering from anorexia are generally perfectionists. Due to their obsession with keeping themselves fit, they are always conscious of their body. For this, they do not even hesitate to use artifactual means. Eat ng too little, excessive exercise, and always being conscious about their body weight and physical appearance become the main causes of anorexia.
  • Social factors: Cultural and social constructs about being thin and beautiful put severe pressure on individuals and may cause anorexia. Specific social and cultural ideas relating to health and beauty, promote weight loss and begin thin as the IdeaIndicators of success and self­ worth. Sometimes, parents and relatives may also be critical of their children’s physical appearance which may lead to anorexia.
  • Biological factors: Biological factors such as circular hormonal functions and nutritional deficiencies may cause anorexia. Genetics also play a significant role in anorexia as parents suffering from anorexia are more prone to having children who are likely to develop anorexia.

Symptoms of Anorexia

  • Significant underweight: The Individual having anorexia will not be able to maintain BMI and will lose weight significantly.
  • Anemia: Anorexia may be one of the leading causes of anemia. This leads to tiredness in an individual.
  • Low pulse rate: The Individualhaving anorexia will have a low heart rate.
  • Low blood pressure: Anorexia may led to low blood pressure.
  • Decrease in body temperature: Low body temperature Is also one of the symptoms of anorexia. Due to low heart rate and low blood pressure, the temperature of the body Is not maintained properly.
  • Failure of menstruation or cessation of the same once established: Irregular menses or Amenormoea may be one symptom of anorexia. IrregularityIn mensuration is one of the main causes of anorexia.
  • Denial of Illness: An individual suffering from anorexia has the tendency to deny the facts related to the disorder.
  • Self-Induced vomiting: An individual suffering from anorexia will go to the washroom frequently and Induce vomits especially after and meal.
  • Excess eating at times: An Individual suffering from anorexia will eat excessively and when he Is unable to digest the food, they will induce vomit.
  • Laxative or derelicta abuse: An individual suffering from anorexia will use diuretics and drain out fluids from his/ her body to remain slim. Individuals also use laxatives or arUflcialsweeteners.

Prevention and Management of Anorexia
The prevention and management of anorexia and very important in the treatment of this disorder. The basic preventive measures used in anorexia are also as follows:

  • People should be encouraged to Inculcate positive self­ esteem and body image.
  • Body sizes should not be criticized and students should not be taught to be preoccupied with their weight.
  • Students should have knowledge of genetic factors that determine body weight. They should be made to understand that being thin is not the most important means to be popular, beautiful, or successful.
  • They should have a healthy approach towards their eating and exercising habits and should avoid the company of those people who are obsessed with their body weight.


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