Food Processing and Technology (Ch-5) Important Questions || Class 12 Home Science Chapter 5 in English ||

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Chapter – 5

Food Processing and Technology

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 Home Science Chapter 5 (Food Processing and Technology) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
SubjectHome Science
Chapter no.Chapter 5
Chapter Name(Food Processing and Technology)
CategoryClass 12 Home Science Important Questions in English
Class 12 Home Science Chapter 5 Food Processing and Technology Questions in English

Chapter 5 Food Processing and Technology

Very Short answer questions

Q1. On 14 January 2010, the Government of India announced the establishment of which by 2012 to promote India’s food processing industry?

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Ans. Setting up of 30 mega food processing parks

Q2. Which are the resource foods that maintain the quality of fresh foods?

Ans. Minimally processed foods.

Q3. Who took the step of pasteurization in the year 1864 to ensure protection from food microbes ?

Ans. Louis Pasteur

Short answer questions (2 marks)

Q1. Give reasons that increased the demand and need for different types of products and new technology.


  • Changes in lifestyle
  • Increasing mobility
  • Globalization
  • India has progressed from an agro-deficit to an agro-surplus country.

Q2. Give examples of changing the amount of certain nutrients in the food. Also tell why is it done?

Ans. Increasing prevalence of diseases like heart disease and diabetes has made it necessary for scientists to alter the nutrient content of foods example –

  • Reducing the calorie content of processed foods in several ways such as using artificial sweeteners.
  • Fat from ice creams is replaced by specially treated proteins

Q3. What are the old methods for food preservation?

Ans. The oldest methods were sun drying, controlled fermentation, salting/ pickling, candying, roasting, smoking, baking and using spices as preservatives.

Q4. Name the micro organisms that cause food spoilage. Also write factors influencing microbial growth.


Micro organisms that cause food spoilage are –

  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Yeasts
  • Moulds

Factors influencing microbial growth are –

  • Nutrient availability
  • Moisture
  • pH, oxygen levels
  • Presence or absence of inhibiting substances.

Short answer questions (3 marks)

Q1. What are the basic concepts in food processing methods to prevent food spoilage?

Ans. The basic concepts in food processing methods to prevent food spoilage are:-

  • Application of heat
  • Removal of water moisture
  • Lowering of temperature during storage
  • Reduction of pH
  • Controlling the availability of oxygen
  • Controlling the availability of carbon dioxide

Q2. What are the functions involved in the field of food industry?

Ans. Food industry is involved in –

  • Processing / manufacture
  • Research and development (modifying existing food products, developing new products, researching consumer markets and developing new technologies)
  • Ensuring food safety
  • Monitoring food quality
  • Improving quality control procedures
  • Casting to ensure profitable production
  • Regulatory affairs.

Q3. Classify foods based on perishability


  • Perishable foods – are foods that spoil quickly within one or two days eg. milk, curds, meat and fish.
  • Semi perishable foods – can last for 1-2 weeks eg. fruits and vegetables. Root crops like onions and potatoes last for 2-4 weeks.
  • Non-perishable foods – are those foods that generally last for one year eg. grains like rice, wheat, pulses and dals, oilseeds.

Long answer questions (4 marks)

Q1. What are the reasons for preserving food? Why has the importance of food technology increased?


  • Food items are processed to increase their shelf life.
  • With improved transportation, communication and increasing industrialisation the needs of consumers have became diverse.
  • Consumers expect foods that have better taste, being shelf stable, easy to package, store and transport.
  • Increasing demand for foods free of chemicals, pesticides and preservatives.
  • Demand for foods that have natural flavour and appearance
  • To meet the needs of working women.
  • Due to choice of seasonal foods throughout the year.
  • Due to new avenues of food security and employment.

Q2. Classify processed foods on the basis of extent and type of processing.


  • Minimally processed foods- These are processed as little as possible in order to retain the quality of fresh foods. Generally the processes used are cleaning, trimming, shelling, cutting, slicing and storage at low refrigeration temperatures.
  • Preserved foods- The methods of preservation used do not change the character of the product substantially eg. frozen peas and frozen vegetables, dehydrated peas, dehydrated vegetables, canned fruits and vegetables.
  • Manufactured foods- In such products, the original characteristics of the raw products are lost and some basic methods of preservation are used, often using various ingredients such as salt, sugar, oil or even chemical preservatives eg. pickles, jams, marmalades, squashes, papads, wadis.
  • Formulated Foods- These are products prepared by mixing and processing of individual ingredients to result in relatively shelf stable food products such as bread, biscuits, ice cream, cakes, kulfi.
  • Food derivatives- In industry, components of foods may be obtained from the raw product through purification, eg. Sugar from sugarcane or oil from oil seeds.
  • Functional foods- These are foods that can have a beneficial effect on human health eg. probiotics, lycopene
  • Medical foods- These are used in dietary management of diseases for eg. low sodium salt, lactose-free milk for persons with lactose intolerance.

Q3. What are the career avenues in the field of food processing and technology?

Ans. Various career avenues in the field of food processing and technology are

  • Production Managers
  • Project Implementation
  • Marketing and Sales Personnel
  • Sensory Evaluation
  • Quality Assurance
  • Research and Development, Product Development
  • Project Financing
  • Project Appraisal

Q5. Which institute is mainly associated with food technology?

Ans. Areas of work of food technologists –

  • Food industries
  • Quality Control departments
  • Hotels
  • Hospitals
  • Labeling and packaging industries
  • Breweries/ distilleries
  • Soft drink industries
  • Dairy
  • Confectionery
  • Fish and meat processing
  • Fruit and vegetable processing
  • Processing of grains
  • Cereals, millets, rice and flour mills

Long answer questions (5 marks)

Q1. What knowledge and skills are necessary in a food technology profession?

Ans. A food technologist requires knowledge and skills about –

  • Food science, food chemistry, microbiology, food processing, safety/ quality assurance, good manufacturing practices and nutrition.
  • Analysis of raw and cooked/ manufactured foods for composition, quality and safety.
  • Food ingredients, their uses in food preparations, and food production on a large scale.
  • Product specifications and food product development.
  • Sensory evaluation and acceptability.
  • Industrial practices, systems control, distribution channels, consumer purchase patterns.
  • Food packaging, and Labeling.
  • Ability to use information technology to support product design.
  • Carry out sensory evaluation.
  • Skills in food preparation and cooking
  • Ability to design, analyse, follow a design brief and adapt recipes.

Q2. Give the list of information given to consumers on Label.

Ans. The following information is given on label –

  • Name of the product
  • Name and address of the manufacturer
  • Trade-mark
  • Ingredients
  • Batch number, License number
  • Necessary instructions regarding use and storage.
  • Net weight
  • Name of Brand
  • Standardised mark
  • Date of manufacturing
  • Date of expiry
  • Colours and preservatives added to the product

Q3. What knowledge and skills are needed for professionals in the field of Food Processing and technology.


Food as a material

  • Seasonal availability of food stuffs
  • Nature and properties of food
  • Nutritional content and its analysis.
  • Cost of food stuff
  • Influence of chemical pesticides, time, moisture, temperature and additives
  • Assesment of the quality of raw foods and ingredients for quality production of food.
  • Food Hygiene and Food safety
  • Knowledge of information for contemporary food production.

Food Product Development.

  • Knowledge of food preparation and cooking skills for large scale food production
  • Knowledge of product specifications and testing it.
  • Observing and measuring Quality control as per specifications.
  • Assessment by sensory methods (testing and tasting.
  • Industrial practices and manufacturing systems and their control
  • Labelling and packaging of marketable product
  • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control point

Recipe Development

  • Expertise in cooking skills and energy use.
  • Uses of ingredients, measuring and weighing them accurately.
  • Designing, analysing and adapting a basic recipe.
  • Food handling skills
  • Food production following hygiene and safety norms.
  • Handling tools and equipment accurately
  • Innovation in product design and preparation according to consumer perceptions.
  • Use of Information technology for contemporary production.

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