Judiciary (CH-6) Important Questions in English || Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 in English ||

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Chapter – 6


In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 (Judiciary) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 11 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 11
SubjectPolitical Science
Chapter no.Chapter 6
Chapter Name(Judiciary)
CategoryClass 11 Political Science Important Questions in English
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 Judiciary Important Questions in English

Chapter 6 Judiciary

Answer the following questions in brief.

Q1. What do you understand by Appellate Authority of the Supreme Court?

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Ans. Hearing appeals on the cases of subordinate courts related to civil, criminal, statutory questions.

Q2. What do you understand by the rule of law?

Ans. All people are equal before law and law will be applied equally to all.

Q3. On what grounds can the Supreme and High Court Judges be removed from their posts?

Ans. In case of proving misconduct or disqualification. The only conditions that can be grounds for their removal are proven misbehavior and incapacity to act as judge. Article 124 of the Constitution states that by an order of the President a Supreme Court justice can be removed from his or her office.

Q4. What do you understand by the advisory powers of the Supreme Court?

Ans. To advise the President on matters of public interest and matters of law. If in a matter of law, the lower court or any constitutional body seeks assistance or advice from a higher court, it is known as Supreme Court advisory jurisdiction.

Q5. What do you understand by the Court of Records?

Ans. The decisions of the Supreme Court will also be effective for other judicial decisions in future.

Q6. Define judicial review.

Ans. Judicial Review refers to the power of the judiciary to interpret the constitution and to declare any such law or order of the legislature and executive void if it finds them in conflict with the Constitution of India.

Q7. How is judicial activism making the court more active?

Ans. Judicial activism has made the judiciary more active through its judicial decisions.

Q8. What do you understand by the Public Interest Litigation?

Ans. In public interest litigation, not only a person but a person or group can also file a PIL on the behalf of others.

Q9. How many high courts are there in India?

Ans. There are 25 High Courts in India.

Q10. At present, how many judges are there in the Supreme Court?

Ans. The Supreme Court of India comprises the Chief Justice and 30 other Judges appointed by the President of India.

Q11. What is the salary of Chief Justice of India?

Ans. 2.8 lakh

Q12. How can the Chief Justice of India be removed from his office?

Ans. Approval of a special majority of Parliament is required.

Two Marks Questions

Q1. PIL was initiated by whom and when?

Ans. P. N. Bhagvati and B. K. Krishna Ayer in 1970

Q2. Which two powers make the Supreme Court powerful.

Ans. Article 32, Judicial Review etc.

Q3. What changes have been made in the PIL?

Ans. Protection of the existing rights of poor, betterment of life conditions of the poor.

Q4. Who has been benefitted from the PIL?

Ans. Poor, deplorable and deprived class of society, judiciary can issue the habeas corpus, Mandamus.

Q5. What is the meaning of judicial review?

Ans. High Courts, Supreme Court can declare any law null and Void and prevent it from coming into force.

Q6. Why the Supreme Court is allowed to revert its own judgments?

Ans. Article 137 of the Constitution of India grants the Supreme Court the power to review any of its judgments or orders. This power is however subject to to the Rules made by the Supreme Court under Article 145, as well as the provisions of any law enacted by parliament.

Q7. How the judiciary can use its power of Article 32?

Ans. Article 32 of the Indian Constitution gives the right to individuals to move to the Supreme Court to seek justice when they feel that their right has been ‘unduly deprived’.

Q8. Who has the authority to issue Article 226 and How?

Ans. The High Court has broad powers to issue orders and writs to any person or authority under Article 226 of the Indian Constitution. Before a writ or an order may be issued, the party who is petitioning the court must prove that he has a right that is being violated or endangered illegally.

Q9. What is the difference between the writs and Judicial Review?

Ans. Judicial review: Judiciary can declare the law null and void, if it is inconsistent with the provisions of the constitution. Supreme Court issues an order called the Writs to protect the fundamental rights d void passed by the legislature to of the people

Four Marks Questions

Q1. Describe the writs issued by the Supreme Court.

Ans. Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Certiorari, Qua Warrnato, Prohibition

Q2. Explain advisory jurisdiction of Supreme Court.

Ans. The President of India can refer any matter of public importance that involves interpretation of constitution to Supreme Court for advice.

Q3. Describe the process of removal from the post of judges of the Supreme Court.

Ans. A judge of the Supreme Court or High Court can be removed only on the ground of proven is behaviour or incapacity by special majority in both houses of the Parliament.

Q4. What is the principle of collegiate?

Ans. The Supreme Court has established the principal of collegiality in making recommendations for appointments. At the moment in matters of appointment the decision of the group of senior judges of the Supreme Court carries greater weight. In matters of appointment to the Judiciary the Supreme Court and the Council of Ministers play an important role.

Q5. Describe appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

Ans. Appellate jurisdiction means a person can appeal to the Supreme Court against the decisions of the high court. High court must clarify that the case is fit for appeal and it involves a serious matter of interpretation of law or constitution. Appellate jurisdiction means that the Supreme Court will reconsider the case and the legal issues involved in it. The high courts too, have appellate jurisdiction over the decisions given by courts below them.

Six Marks Questions

Q1. The structure of the Indian judiciary is pyramidal.

Ans. The structure of the judiciary in India is pyramidal with the Supreme Court at the top, High Courts below them and district and subordinate courts at the lowest level (see the diagram below). The lower courts function under the direct superintendence of the higher courts. Its decisions are binding on all courts.

Q2. Describe the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

Ans. The Supreme Court is the Apex Court of the nation. The constitution has conferred on the Supreme Court very wide jurisdiction. 

The jurisdictions and powers of the Supreme Court are as follows:

  • Original Jurisdiction – (Article 131) The power to hear any case first instance. E.g., Dispute between two states.
  • Writ Jurisdiction (article 32) – The power to issue different kinds of Writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. The Supreme court has original jurisdiction regarding an issue of writs.
  • Appellate Jurisdiction – The supreme court primarily a court of Appeal and it hears the appeal against the judgment of High Courts. It has the following jurisdiction in this regard:
    • Appeals in Constitutional matters.
    • Appeals in Civil matters.
    • Appeals in Criminal matters.
    • Appeals by Special Leave – This is discretionary power of the supreme court.
  • Advisory Jurisdiction (article 143) – The president is authorized to seek an advisory opinion of the supreme court in certain matters. The supreme court provides its advice when it is sought by the President. The advice given however, is not binding on the president.

Q3. What is the negative aspect of the judicial activism?

Ans. in a way, it limits the functioning of the government. It clearly violates the limit of power set to be exercised by the constitution when it overrides any existing law. The judicial opinions of the judges once taken for any case becomes the standard for ruling other cases.

Q4. Public interest litigation helps the poor and the deprived people. How?

Ans. Public interest litigation can help the poor in the following ways:

  • It can seek to protect the fundamental rights and better the living conditions of the poor.
  • It can allow public spirited citizens, social organisations and lawyers to file cases on behalf of those who cannot approach the courts.
  • The judiciary can also consider the cases on the basis of newspaper reports and postal complaints received by the court.
  • The courts can direct the executive to comply with its orders and provide remedial action to the aggrieved party whose rights have been violated.
  • PILs have also expanded the idea of rights and thus, have led to formation of new norms for public good like clean air and water that have benefitted the entire society.

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