Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution (CH-2) Important Questions in English || Class 9 Social Science (History) Chapter 2 in English ||

Share Now on

Chapter – 2

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 (Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in Class 9 exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 9
SubjectSocial Science
Chapter no.Chapter 2
Chapter Name(Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution)
CategoryClass 9 Social Science Important Questions in English
MediumEnglish
Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Important Questions in English

Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark each)

Q1. What were the views of liberals in 19th century Europe regarding universal adult franchises?

Criss Cross Classes BookPrinted Books Are Available Now!

Ans. Liberals did not believe in universal adult franchise. They felt men of property mainly should have the right to vote.

Q2. What was the root of all social evil, according to Socialists?

Ans. Private property.

Q3. Who sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA)?

Ans. Robert Owen.

Q4. Who, in France, wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises?

Ans. Louis Blanc.

Q5. Who propounded the idea of a “communist society”?

Ans. Karl Marx.

Q6. How the property was to be controlled in a socialist society?

Ans. Social control on all property.

Q7. Who was the emperor of Russia at the start of the First World War?

Ans. Tsar Nicholas II

Q8. What was the profession of the majority of Russia’s population at the beginning of the twentieth century?

Ans. Agriculture

Q9. What was the name of the elected consultative Parliament created after the 1905 Revolution?

Ans. Duma

Q10. Which Revolution of Russia is related to ‘Bloody Sunday”?

Ans. 1905 Revolution

Q11. Who led the Bolshevik group in Russia?

Ans. Vladimir Lenin

Q12. Which Revolution in Russia brought down the monarchy?

Ans. February Revolution of 1917

Q13. Which party was renamed the Russian Communist Party after the October Revolution of 1917?

Ans. The Bolshevik Party.

Q14. Name the countries that sent their troops in the Russian Civil War to stop the growth of socialism in Russia.

Ans. France, USA, Britain and Japan

Q15. Who started the collectivization program in Russia?

Ans. Stalin

Q16. Where did the Bolsheviks sign a peace treaty with Germany in March 1918?

Ans. Brest Litovsk

Q17. Who was known as ‘the reds’ and ‘the greens’ in the Russian Civil War?

Ans. The Bolsheviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries respectively.

Q18. Who were ‘kulaks’?

Ans. The well-to-do peasants of Russia

Q19. What was ‘kolkhoz’ in Russia?

Ans. Collective farms

Q20. What was Comintern?

Ans. Communist International (an international union of pro-Bolshevik socialist parties.

Short/Long Answer Type Questions (3/5 Marks)

Q1. What were the main ideas of liberals in 19th-century Europe?

Ans. 

  • The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a dramatic change in the society.
  • There were groups /ideas that looked to change society according to their thoughts and visions.
  • Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives were three main groups.

Q2. Differentiate between the ideas of liberals and radicals.

Ans.

Liberals: main ideas-

  • Tolerance of all religions
  • Opposed the uncontrolled powers of the king.
  • Supported the rights of the individuals
  • Supported a representative, elected parliamentary government and independent judiciary.
  • Did not support universal adult franchise (right of every citizen including women)
  • Supported private property.

Radicals: main ideas-

  • Government based on majority.
  • Opposed the privileges given to great landowners and wealthy factory owners.
  • Many of them also supported women’s suffragette movements.
  • Supported private property but disliked concentration of property in the hands of a few.

Q3. Describe the visions of early socialists.

Ans. SOCIALISM: Socialists were against private property but had differing ideas on how a society without property could operate. Some of the visions of socialists are as follows:

  • (1) Robert Owen – sought to build a cooperative community.
  • (2) Louis Blanc – He wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises.
  • (3) Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels – Argued that the industrial society was ‘capitalist’. The capitalists owned the capital invested in the factories, and the profit of capitalists was produced by workers. Thus, capitalists exploit the workers. Marx believed that this capitalist system would be triumphed by the workers and a socialist society would be established where all property would be socially controlled.

Q4. Who was Karl Marx? What were his ideas regarding socialism?

Ans. Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels – Argued that the industrial society was ‘capitalist’. The capitalists owned the capital invested in the factories, and the profit of capitalists was produced by workers. Thus, capitalists exploit the workers. Marx believed that this capitalist system would be triumphed by the workers and a socialist society would be established where all property would be socially controlled.

Q5. What were Lenin’s April Theses?

Ans. April Theses – In April 1917, the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia from his exile. He presented three demands which are known as Lenin’s April Theses. These were:

  • The war (First World War) must be brought to a close.
  • Land must be transferred to the peasants.
  • Banks must be nationalized.

Q6. What were the main changes that came after the Revolution of October 1917?

Ans. changed after the Revolution of October 1917:

  • Private property eradicated. Most industries and banks were nationalized.
  • The land was declared social property land of nobility was seized.
  • Ban on the use of old titles of the aristocracy.
  • Russia signed a peace pact with Germany.
  • Russia became a one-party state and the Russian Communist Party was the only party.
  • Censorship in all aspects of life was imposed.
  • Beginning of the civil war in Russia.

Q7. How was Russian society socialized?

Ans.

  • Nationalization of banks and industries.
  • Collective farming.
  • Central planning, beginning of Five Years Plans.
  • An extended schooling system developed; arrangements were made for factory workers and peasants to enter universities.
  • Creches were established in the factories.
  • Availability of cheap public health care.
  • Model living quarters for the workers.

Q8. Explain the main ideas of Karl Marx.

Ans. 

  • Karl Marx added other ideas in the socialist ideas.
  • Socialists considered private property as the root of all social ills.
  • Marx argued that industrial society was ‘capitalist’. Capitalists owned
  • the capital invested in factories, and the profit of capitalists was produced by workers.
  • The workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property.
  • After overthrowing capitalism, a radically socialist society would be constructed where all property was
  • socially controlled.
  • Further, this would be a communist society and a communist society was the natural society of the future.

Q9. What were the political, social, and economic conditions of Russia before 1905?

Ans.

  • Russia was an autocracy. The Tsar was not subject to parliament. Owing to heavy expenditure, the treasury was bankrupt.
  • Russian society was divided into three classes, the clergy, nobility, and the working class including peasants.
  • The vast majority (about 85%) of Russia’s people were agriculturists. They had to pay heavy taxes. Nobility, the crown, and the Orthodox Church owned large properties. Peasants were deeply religious but they had no respect for the nobility. They wanted the land of the nobles to be given to them.
  • Most industries was privately owned. The wages were minimum and the working hours were sometimes 15 hours. Thus, the condition of workers was miserable.

Q10. What were the impacts of the First World War on Russia?

Ans.

Q11. How was Stalin’s collectivization program implemented in Russia?

Ans. The impacts of First World War on Russia:

  • Defeats were shocking and demoralizing for Russia on ‘eastern front’. There were over 7 million causalities by 1917. As they retreated, the Russian army destroyed crops and buildings to prevent the enemies form being able to live off the land. The destruction of crops and buildings led to over 3 million refugees in Russia.
  • The war had a severe impact on industry. Supplies were cut to the industries and therefore, industrial production was down.
  • By 1916, railway lines began to break down.
  • Able-bodied men were called up to the war. As a result, there were labor shortages.
  • Large supplies of grain were sent to feed the army. For the people in cities, bread and flour became scarce.

We hope that Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 (Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution) Important Questions in English helped you. If you have any queries about Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 (Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution) Important Questions in English or about any other notes of Class 9 Social Science in English, so you can comment below. We will reach you as soon as possible‚Ķ


Share Now on

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *