The End of Bipolarity (CH-2) Important Questions in English || Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 in English ||

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Chapter – 2

The End of Bipolarity

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 (The End of Bipolarity) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
SubjectPolitical Science
Chapter no.Chapter 2
Chapter Name(The End of Bipolarity)
CategoryClass 12 Political Science Important Questions in English
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity Important Questions in English

Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity

One Marker Questions –

Q1. Which among the following is not an outcome of the disintegration of the USSR

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  • end of the ideological war between the US and
  • the birth of CIS
  • Russia became a permanent member of the security council
  • internal unrest in Tunisia and Arab

Ans. internal unrest in Tunisia and Arab Spring.

Q2. Correct and rewrite the statement : Algeria was the birthplace of the Arab Spring.

Ans. Tunisia was the birthplace of the Arab Spring.

Q3. What is the full form of CIS?

Ans. Commonwealth of Independent States.

 Q4. What do you understand by Glasnost ?

Ans. Glasnost means : openness and refers to government transparency and increased freedom of expression.

Q5. How many bilateral agreements were signed between India and Russia as a part of the Indo Russia strategic agreement of 2001 ?

Ans. 80 bilateral agreements signed.

(bilateral, economic interaction, Textiles, leather, Information Technology, telecommunications, tourism, food processing Information power construction etc.)

 Q6. What is Gulf war ?

Ans. Gulf war occurred when the UNO decided to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation by using military force. A huge coalition force of 34 countries fought against Iraq and defeated it. This war came to be popularly known as the Gulf War.

Q7. Which former Soviet Republic was the first to declare its independence from the Soviet Union in 1990 ?

Ans. Lithuania was the first to declare that it was an independent Nation.

Q8. Which one of the following was a part of its global war on terrorism by the u.s.

  • Operation Desert Storm
  • Operation Infinite Reach
  • Operation Enduring Freedom

Ans. c) Operation Enduring Freedom

 Fill in the blank

Q9. Democratization makes a government more_________towards its citizens and increases their participation in decision a mking process of the country.

Ans. accountable

 Correct the following sentence-

Q10. Operation Iraqi freedom was started in the year 1990.

Ans. 2003

Two marks questions

Q1. What were the two reforms initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev?

Ans. Perestroika and Glasnost.

Q2. Name two Baltic states of the former Soviet Republics that joined NATO in 2004?

Ans. Estonia, Latvia.

Q3. What is the present number of members in NATO? (2020)

Ans. Presently there are 30 members in NATO

Q4. Choose the correct option : which of the following two were the members of Warsaw pact?

  • Bulgaria,
  • Romania,
  • Netherland

Ans. Bulgaria, Romania.

 Q5. What was the largest ‘Garage Sale in the history of the world’ ?

Ans. The largest garage sale in history resulted due to the Shock Therapy in which valuable industries were sold at throwaway prices

 Four Marker Questions

 Q1. Mention any four features that made the Soviet economy better from that of a capitalist country like the USA.

Ans. Soviet economy had complex communication network with energy resources and an efficient transport sector connecting its remotest areas. Soviet Union industry produced every domestic product from Pins to cars, although with the quality better than the Western Technology, Soviet Union insured a minimum standard of living for its citizens. There was an absence of unemployment in Soviet Union, land and productive assets were under state control.

 Q2. What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the USSR

Ans. Mikhail Gorbachev was the secretary general of the Communist Party of Soviet Union in 1985 he was forced to initiate reforms in the USSR because:

  • The Soviet system had become very bureaucratic and authoritarian making life difficult for the common citizens.
  • There was a lack of democracy and freedom of speech, resulting in dissatisfaction among the citizens.
  • The citizens in the 15 Republics of the USSR were dissatisfied with the Russian domination in their cultural affairs. The rise of nationalism and desire for Sovereignty in Russia and the Republics.
  • Low productivity and technology had resulted in shortages of consumer goods and the Soviet economy had become stagnant as the economic growth rate was low.

 Q3. Give any four reasons for the disintegration of Soviet Union in 1991.

Ans. Lack of democracy and freedom of speech, one party system which was not accountable to the people, dominance of Russia and neglect of the interest of other Republics, high expenditure on Defence, low expenditure on infrastructure and Technology.

 Q4. Write in brief India’s present relationship with the former republics of Soviet Union.

Ans. India has cordial diplomatic relations with Russia and the former Republics of the Soviet Union; the foreign policy is based upon mutual trust interest and peaceful coexistence which includes collective security. greater regionalism and democratic notion of decision making in international bodies like the United Nations Organisation.

India has benefited from CIS and on issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism and access to Central Asia. Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan are India’s major trading partner

Six Marker Questions

Q1. Mikhail Gorbachev initiated Reforms for transforming the Soviet economy but how did these lead to the disintegration of the USSR itself?

Ans. Mikhail Gorbachev became the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985 and sought to reform the ailing system, introduced economic and political reforms of perestroika and glasnost and initiated changes. He introduced reforms to transform the Soviet Union but it hastened its collapse, lifting of price controls collapsed the markets, the Soviet black market economy thrived, the collapse of the value of Russian currency rouble, rising rate of inflation, shortages of consumer goods and hoarding resulted in unrest among the people, mismanagement of fiscal policy made the country vulnerable to external factors.A coup took place in 1991 encouraged by the Communist Party hardliners . However the people did not want the old style rule and wanted freedom

Q2. What are the consequences of the disintegration of Soviet Union in world politics?

Ans. It led to the end of the cold war and ideological confrontation in the world. The disintegration left open the world space to be dominated by the sole superpower. The world is now dominated by the USA. Emergence of a unipolar world. The power relations in world politics have changed and this has led to the dominance of capitalist system, free market economy, globalisation.

The end of the Soviet bloc paved the way for the emergence of many new sovereign countries each with their own identity interest and economic and political relations. new geo- political alliances.Nuclear disarniament andf- new security arrangements have been initiated. The power struggle at the United Nations and its Security Council has been decreased to a certain extent.

Collapse of the Warsaw Pact and many of its members joining NATO. Power shifted from Soviet Centre which was Russia dominated to its 15 Republics. Rise of CIS.

Q3. What do you understand by Arab Spring? Did it help in the Democratisation process in the region ?

Ans. The Arab Spring was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across much of the Arab world in the early 2010s. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, starting with protests in Tunisia.The Arab Spring began in 2009 when Tunisian street vendor Mohammed Bouazizi set himself on fire in order to protest for the seizing of his vegetable stand by police over failure to obtain a permit. Activists in other countries in the region were inspired by the regime change in Tusisia – the country’s first democratic parliamentary elections were held in October 2011.

It resulted in anti- government rallies, protest walks, civil unrest etc. by the common people. It ultimately resulted in regime changes in countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya.(Not all of the movements, however, could be deemed successful – the end goal was increased democracy and cultural freedom. – and began to protest similar authoritarian governments in their own nation).While the uprising in Tunisia led to some improvements in the country- democratic and human-rights perspective, not all of the nations that witnessed such social and political upheaval in the spring of 2011 changed for the better.

In Egypt, where early changes arising from the Arab Spring gave many hope with the ouster of President Hosni Mubarak.

In Libya, meanwhile, authoritarian dictator Colonel Muammar Qaddafi was overthrown in October 2011, during a violent civil war.Similarly, the civil war in Syria that began in the aftermath of the Arab Spring lasted for several.

 years, forcing many to leave the country and seek refuge. The ongoing civil war in Yemen can also be traced to the Arab Spring. The country’s infrastructure has suffered significant damage, and the conflict has entered into tribal warfare.

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