Care and Maintenance of Fabrics in Institutions (Ch-13) Important Questions || Class 12 Home Science Chapter 13 in English ||

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Chapter – 13

Care and Maintenance of Fabrics in Institutions

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 Home Science Chapter 13 (Care and Maintenance of Fabrics in Institutions) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
ClassClass 12
SubjectHome Science
Chapter no.Chapter 13
Chapter Name(Care and Maintenance of Fabrics in Institutions)
CategoryClass 12 Home Science Important Questions in English
Class 12 Home Science Chapter 13 Care and Maintenance of Fabrics in Institutions Questions in English

Chapter 13 Care and Maintenance of Fabrics in Institutions

Very Short Answer Questions (1 mark)

Q1. What are the aspects of care and maintenance of fabrics?

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Ans- The care and maintenance of fabrics includes two aspects;

  • To keep the material free from physical damage and to rectify any damage that may have occurred during its use.
  • To retain the visual appearance and textural characteristics of clothes.

Q2. How many types of models are available in washing machines? Name them.

Ans- Two types of models are available in the washing machine:

  • Top-loading, in which clothes are put in the machine from above.
  • Front loading in which the clothes are filled from the front.

Q4. How do we clean large items of household linen or some special garments?

Ans- We do not wash the silk, wool or some special clothes at home We get them cleaned in the laundry where their cleaning is done with organic solvent i.e. dry-cleaned

Q5. Write the names of any two methods of keeping the clothes moving in the washing machine


  • Agitation
  • Pulsation

Short answer questions (2 marks)

Q1. Write any four factors that affect the process of cleaning of clothes.


  • Type and content of fibres and yarns
  • Fabric manufacturing techniques
  • Finishes given to the fabrics
  • Purpose of use of fabric

Q2. “Washing of clothes is both a science and an art.” Discuss this statement.

Ans- Washing of textiles is a science, as it is based on the application of scientific principles and techniques. This is an art, as it is necessary to have mastery of the respective skills to achieve aesthetically interesting results.

Q3. What do you understand by the dry cleaning shops (waterless washing shops?)

Ans- In the dry cleaning shops, people give some special clothes for cleaning. Here the customers give clothes to be washed, and after a few days they take back the washed clothes. These customers can be any person or an organization. Some washing houses also provide service to collect and deliver materials from the customer. These also serve small institutions like small hotel, hostels, restaurants and nursing homes. Some shops also have units for pre-treatment such as darning, repairing and dyeing of textiles.

Q4. Write the names of any 4 appliances used in commercial washing houses.


  • Large washing machines
  • Water extractors
  • Dryers
  • Ironing equipment
  • Calendaring machine
  • Trolley to move from one place to another

Short answer question (3 marks)

Q1. What are the primary requirements in a person who wants to earn a livelihood in the care and maintenance of clothes?

Ans- A person desirous of earning a livelihood in the care and maintenance of garments should have knowledge of the following primary requirements:

  • Knowledge of types and content of fibre, yarn, textile production technology, dyeing of fabrics and other fabric finishes for necessary care of garments.
  • Knowledge of functioning and care of machines involved.
  • Knowledge of chemicals and reagents used in various processes and their effect on different types of textiles

Q2. Which clothing items need to be washed and maintained in a hospital?


  • Clothes like bed sheets, draw sheets, blankets etc. of hospitals.
  • Clothes of employees or uniform
  • Furnishings of rooms of hospitals
  • Aprons, caps, head costumes, masks
  • Dresses of patients in hospital
  • Kitchen clothes.
  • Some other materials like curtains, tablecloths etc.

Q3. What are different methods used for water extraction in an automatic washing machine?

Ans- Water extraction Water is extracted after the wash phase and after each rinse phase of the cycle. This can be done in three ways

  • Spinning: Spinning at speeds exceeding 300 revolutions per minute (rpm) produces a centrifugal force, which draws water out of the clothes. This water is released into the drain by the pump
  • Bottom drain: Machines with perforated tubs stop at the end of wash phase and then at the end of the rinse process. The water filled in the tub of the machine is discharged through the bottorn. At the end of the drain period the tub spins rapidly, which removes the remaining water from the clothes.
  • Combination of spinning and bottom drain: Some machines drain through the bottom without stopping that is the bottom draining occurs during the spin period. This is the best method of removing water from the machine. This also removes the suspended dirt in the water as well.

Long Answer Questions 4 marks

Q1. What is the function of a dryer in a machine? Describe its different methods of operation.

Ans- Drying Equipment and Process:- Driers are used to dry clothes at commercial and institutional levels.

There are two types of operations in dryers:

  • Air of relatively low temperature is circulated at high velocity: In this system room air enters the drier from the bottom of the front panel and passes over the heat source. Hot air passes through the clothes and then leaves through an exhaust pipe. This allows room temperature and humidity to remain normal.
  • Slow circulation of high temperature air. In this system, when the air enters the dryer and passes over the top of the heat source, it is pulled by a small fan through the perforations in the upper part of the dryer. This air then moves downwards through the clothes and gets out through the exhaust.The expelled air has high relative humidity.

Q2. Explain what are the differences in the process of laundry work in commercial laundries and laundries of hospitals.


1. Commercial laundries

  • In commercial laundries, cleaning and maintenance of the clothes of the customers is done. The customer can be any person, hostel or institution.
  • There may be separate sections for dry-cleaning of silk, woollen and other expensive textiles and for specific items such as washing of carpets, brocade polish of fabrics, dyeing etc.
  • Special attention is paid to the ironing and packing of garments.
  • The disinfection of the materials is not given much importance. Special attention is paid to the cleanliness of the spots and the aesthetic sense of the garment.

2. Laundries of hospitals

  • In the laundries of hospitals, only the clothes of that hospital, the clothes of their patients and the employees are cleaned and maintained.
  • Most of the material here is made of cotton cloth. There may be sections for different departments of hospitals.
  • No special attention given to ironing and packaging of the garments.
  • Here emphasis is not given to remove tough stains, but special care is taken for the hygiene of clothes and also disinfection.

Long answer questions (5 marks)

Q1. What are the different types of Washing machines? Briefly write the working of a fully automatic machine. Which materials are commonly used for making agitators in washing machine and why?

Ans- Washing machines are found in two types of models

  • Top loading
  • Front loading

These models can be of three types:

  • Hand operated- In these machines 50% or more of the work is done manually by the operator.
  • Semi-automatic- These machines have two tubs. These machines require the intervention of the person washing clothes, periodically. The rinse water has to be filled into the machine and then drained out with each cycle.
  • Fully automatic machine- In these machines, the washing, rinsing and squeezing of the garments is done automatically by the machine in a single tub. It does not require the intervention of the person once it is set. All controls for water filling, heating to a certain temperature, wash cycle, and number of rinses are set once, and then garments are put in the machine. The machine turns off automatically after a certain time.

Agitators of the washing machine are made from materials such as plastic, aluminium or bakelite. These substances are not affected by different types of detergents, bleaching agents, softeners etc.

We hope that Class 12 Home Science Chapter 13 (Care and Maintenance of Fabrics in Institutions) Important Questions in English helped you. If you have any queries about class 12 Home Science Chapter 13 (Care and Maintenance of Fabrics in Institutions) Important Questions in English or about any other notes of class 12 Home Science in English, so you can comment below. We will reach you as soon as possible…

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