Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement (CH-13) Important Questions in English || Class 12 History Chapter 13 in English ||

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Chapter – 13

Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement

In this post, we have given the Important Questions of Class 12 History Chapter 13 (Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement) in English. These Important Questions are useful for the students who are going to appear in class 12 board exams.

BoardCBSE Board, UP Board, JAC Board, Bihar Board, HBSE Board, UBSE Board, PSEB Board, RBSE Board
TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 12
SubjectHistory
Chapter no.Chapter 13
Chapter Name(Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement)
CategoryClass 12 History Important Questions in English
MediumEnglish
Class 12 History Chapter 13 Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Important Questions in English

1 Marks Questions

Q1. Why did Mahatma Gandhi consider the salt tax more oppressive than other taxes?

Ans- Salt tax was wickedly designed by the Government. Salt was used in every household.

Q2. What was the attitude of the Indian National Congress towards the second world war?

Ans- Both Mahatma Gandhi and Nehru were against Hitler and Nazis.

Q3. What is meant by Rowlatt Act?

Ans- Anybody could be arrested on the basis of suspicion and put in prison without trial.

Q4. Why did Gandhiji Start Non Cooperation Movement?

Ans. To get Swaraj

Q5. What is the importance of the Salt March?

Ans. This event brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention.

Q6. What is the importance of Dandi March?

Ans. Civil law violated across large part of India.

Q7. What is the sources to know the role of Mahatma Gandhi in the history of National Movement of India.

Ans.

  • Autobiographies and biographies.
  • Contemporary newspapers.

Q8 Why Mahatma Gandhi has been regarded as the ‘Father’ of Indian Nation.

Ans. Because in the history of nationalism a single Man is often identified with the making of a Nation. Example – Garibaldi-(Italy) Washington with America; Ho Chi Minh with Vietnam.

Q9. Who are known as Lal, Bal, and Pal?

Ans.

  • Lal – Lala Lajpat Rai (Punjab)
  • Bal – Bal Gangadhar Tilak (Maharashtra)
  • Pal – Bipin Chandra Pal (Bengal)

Q10. Who were the ‘Moderates?

Ans. Who preferred a more gradual and persuasive approach like Firoj Shah Mehta, Gopal Krishan Gokhale.

Q.11. What was the Rowlatt Act?

Ans. This act Passed in 1919 for two years permitted the detention of any person without trial in the court.

Q12. Why was the Non- co-operation Movement launched?

Ans.

  • To protest against the Jallianwalla Bagh and the Khilafat wrongs.
  • To demand swaraj.

Q13. Why was the Khilafat Movement started?

Ans.

  • To protest against the injustice done to Turkey.
  • To retain the Turkish Sultan or Khilafat.

Q14. What was Gandhi – Irwin Pact of 1931?

Ans.

  • Gandhiji Postponed Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • Irwin agreed to release all prisoners.
  • Gandhiji went to – second round table conference.

3 Marks Questions

Q15. Why did Gandhiji Start Non Cooperation Movement? Why was it withdrawn?

Ans.

  • To oppose ‘Rowlett Act’.
  • To undo the injustice done at Jalianwala Bagh.
  • To support the Khilafat Movement.
  • To get Swaraj
  • Violence at Chauri-Chaura and movement withdrawn.

Q16. Give the significance of the Salt March.

Ans.

  • This event brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention.
  • First nationalist movement in which women participated.
  • Create pressure upon British Government

Q17. Why did Gandhiji start Non-cooperation Movement? Why was it withdrawn?

Ans:

  • To oppose Rowlatt Act.
  • To undo the injustice done at Jalianwala Bagh.
  • To support the Khilafat Movement.
  • To attend Swaraj.
  • Violence at Chauri-Chaura-He withdrew non co-operation movement because of the incident of Chauri-Chaura
  • Gandhiji believed in non-violence.

Q18. Explain the significance of Dandi March?

Ans-

  • Violation of Salt law- a monopoly of British and manufacturing of salt.
  • Large scale participation of women.
  • Civil law violated across large part of India.

Q19. What was the problem of separate electorates? What were the disagreements between Congress and Dalits on this issue? Finally what solution could be of this issue?

Ans:

  • Demand of separate electorates by the Dalits in which they wanted reservation in separate electorates like Muslims. In 1931 in the second Round Table Conference dalit leader Dr. B. R. Ambedkar said Congress does not represent the Dalits.
  • He said Dalits are socially and economically backward. By separate electorate they can put demands of their rights.
  • Gandhiji opposed the separate electorates.
  • Finally Congress gave separate electorates to Dalits within the Congress.

8 Marks Questions

Q.20. What was the aim and methods of Non Co-operation Movements?

Ans.

  • Protest against Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
  • Demand of Swaraj.
  • To Support Khilafat Movement.
  • Hindu Muslim Unity.
  • To oppose Rowlett Act.

Methods –

  • Surrender of the titles
  • Movement should be non-violent.
  • No co-operation with British Government.
  • Bycott of court and offices, college, foreign cloths etc.
  • Strikes and demonstration.

Q21. In what way did Mahatma Gandhi transform the nature of the National Movement?

Ans.

  • Gandhiji had concern for the poor.
  • BHU/Champaran/Ahamedabad/Kheda issue.
  • He launched Non Co-operation, Civil Disobedience, Salt March and Quit India Movement and thousands of Indians of all classes joined these movements.
  • Inspirational leadership of Gandhiji.
  • Gandhiji’s ideology
  • In the Satyagraha masses were involved.
  • Constructive Programs of Gandhiji.
  • By his political Methods.
  • Gandhiji’s Charisma.
  • 1915 Gandhiji Returned India from South Africa
  • Feb. 1916 Gandhi’s Speech at Banaras
  • 1917 Champaran Campaigns
  • 1918 Ahmedabad, Kheda Campaigns
  • March 1919Rowlett Act Passed
  • April 1919 Jalianwala Bagh Massacre
  • 1920-21 The Khilafat and Non Co-operation Movement
  • Feb. 1922 Chauri-Chaura and withdrawal of Non Co-operation movement.
  • Dec. 1929 Lahore Session of Congress
  • March 1930- Salt March
  • Jan. 1931- Gandhi-Irwin Pact
  • 1935- Government of India Act.
  • 1942- Quit India Movement
  • 1946- Cabinet Mission
  • 15 Aug. 1947- India got freedom
  • 30 Jan. 1948 Gandhi was shot dead by a Nathuram Godse.

Q22. How did Gandhiji transform National Movement into mass movement?

Ans:

  • Simple lifestyle
  • Use of Hindi for communication
  • Role of Gandhiji in three mass movements.
  • Emphasis on Truth and non-violence
  • Swadeshi, boycott and Swaraj.
  • Importance on Charkha and Khadi.
  • Upliftment of women, poor downtrodden.
  • Hindu-Muslim unity
  • Abolition of untouchability.
  • Balancing each and every section of society.

Q23. Explain the sources from which we can reconstruct the political career of Mahatma Gandhi and the history of National Movement of India.

Ans:

  • Auto-biographies and biographies.
  • Contemporary newspapers.
  • Official and police records.
  • Public speeches
  • Private letters.

Q24. “Where ever Gandhiji went, rumours spread of his miraculous power.” Explain with examples.

Ans:

  • The ascetic life style,
  • Use of dhoti and charkha
  • Use of Hindi for communication made Gandhiji very popular.
  • Where ever he went rumours spread of his miraculous powers.
    • Sent by King to redress the grievances of the farmers.
    • Had power to overrule all local officials.
    • Gandhiji was superior to the British.
  • Fight against untouchability.

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